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  • 1
    ISSN: 0531-5565
    Keywords: in vitro aging ; in vitro transformation ; interferon ; major histocompatibility complex ; oxygen tension ; primary culture
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In spite of Carl Rabl's (1885) and Theodor Boveri's (1909) early hypothesis that chromosomes occupy discrete territories or domains within the interphase nucleus, evidence in favor pf this hypothesis has been limited and indirect so far in higher plants and animals. The alternative possibility that the chromatin fiber of single chromosomes might be extended throughout the major part of even the whole interphase nucleus has been considered for many years. In the latter case, chromosomes would only exist as discrete chromatin bodies during mitosis but not during interphase. Both possibilities are compatible with Boveri's well established paradigm of chromosome individuality. Here we show that an active human X chromosome contained as the only human chromosome in a Chinese hamster x man hybrid cell line can be visualized both in metaphse plates and in interphase nuclei after in situ hybridization with either 3H- or biotin-labeled human genomic DNA. We demonstrate that this chromosome is organized as a distinct chromatin body throughout interphase. In addition, evidence for the territorial organization of human chromosomes is also presented for another hybrid cell line containing several autosomes and the human X chromosome. These findings are discussed in the context of our present knowledge of the organization and topography of interphase chromosomes. General applications of a strategy aimed at specific staining of individual chromosomes in experimental and clinical cytogenetics are briefly considered.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Galactosyl ceramide β-galactosidase activity was determined in chorionic villi (CV) samples obtained between the 9th and 11th weeks of gestation from 5 women with pregnancies at risk for Krabbe's disease (globoid-cell leukodystrophy, KD). These enzyme activities were compared with those in controls, as well as with those in cultured amniotic fluid cells (AFC) from one of the five at-risk pregnancies and from 29 KD-risk pregnancies studied previously. The results of these CV enzyme analyses were such that one case of fetal KD was clearly diagnosable, one fetal genotype heterozygous for KD was presumed, and three normal fetal genotypes were suggested. The use of both uncultured and cultered CV can be recommended for prenatal KD testing, but AFC may continue to play an important role, too. Of the 58 prenatal KD tests we have evaluated since 1974, a positive diagnosis of Krabbe's disease was made (and confirmed after termination of pregnancy when feasible) in 23 which is significantly more than 25% of 58.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Histochemistry and cell biology 45 (1975), S. 191-201 
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The corpus luteum periodicum (c.l.p.) of the bitch was studied using enzyme histochemistry, clinical and biochemical methods. Assessment of variations of the serum progesterone level during different stages of the ovarian cycle and the study of enzymatic activity of the luteal tissue furnished informations on vitality and biosynthetic capacity of luteinizing cells: The period of functional activity of the c.l.p. nearly ceased about day 60 of the cycle (proestrus included) in the animals examined. In the light microscope the neo-synthesis of progesterone in the c.l.-tissue can be made visible by histochemical demonstration of the activity of Delta5-3 beta-hydroxysteroiddehydrogenase (3 beta-HSD) only up to a progesterone level exceeding 6.7 ng/ml plasma. The data obtained contribute to our baseline knowledge of the mechanism involved in the etiology of pseudopregnancylike conditions in the bitch.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Partial endoreduplication (PE) as defined by Lejeune et al. (1966) has only been found in a few instances. Similar configurations, also called PEs, seem to originate from a different process. A series of 12 PEs is presented in this paper, discovered in metaphases from healthy individuals, and in patients with or without chromosome-breakage syndrome and after treatment with chromosome-breaking agents. Interpretations of the microscopic appearance of each configuration led to the conclusion that there are three different modes of origin for such rare events, one being true partial endoreduplication, the second a partial pseudoendoreduplication, and the third a homologous triradial chromatid translocation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Two cloned repetitive DNA probes, pXBR and CY1, which bind preferentially to specific regions of the human X and Y chromosome, respectively, were used to study the distribution of the sex chromosomes in human lymphocyte nuclei by in situ hybridization experiments. Our data indicate a large variability of the distances between the sex chromosomes in male and female interphase nuclei. However, the mean distance observed between the X and Y chromosome was significantly smaller than the mean distance observed between the two X-chromosomes. The distribution of distances determined experimentally is compared with three model distributions of distances, and the question of a non-random distribution of sex chromosomes is discussed. Mathematical details of these model distributions are provided in an Appendix to this paper. In the case of a human translocation chromosome (Xqter→Xp22.2::Yq11→Y qter) contained in the Chinese hamster x human hybrid cell line 445 x 393, the binding sites of pXBR and CY1 were found close to each other in most interphase nuclei. These data demonstrate the potential use of chromosome-specific repetitive DNA probes to study the problem of interphase chromosome topography.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The localization of chromosome 18 in human interphase nuclei is demonstrated by use of radioactive and nonradioactive in situ hybridization techniques with a DNA clone designated L1.84. This clone represents a distinct subpopulation of the repetitive human alphoid DNA family, located in the centric region of chromosome 18. Under stringent hybridization conditions hybridization of L1.84 is restricted to chromosome 18 and reflects the number of these chromosomes present in the nuclei, namely, two in normal diploid human cells and three in nuclei from cells with trisomy 18. Under conditions of low stringency, cross-hybridization with other subpopulations of the alphoid DNA family occurs in the centromeric regions of the whole chromosome complement, and numerous hybridization sites are detected over interphase nuclei. Detection of chromosome-specific target DNAs by non-radioactive in situ hybridization with appropriate DNA probes cloned from individual chromosomal subregions presents a rapid means of identifying directly numerical or even structural chromosome aberrations in the interphase nucleus. Present limitations and future applications of interphase cytogenetics are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of pediatrics 89 (1964), S. 82-90 
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Es wird über einen Fall von Periarteriitis nodosa bei einem 9 Monate alten Säugling berichtet. Das Kind erkrankte unter den uncharakteristischen Erscheinungen eines hochfieberhaften Infektes mit Conjunctivitis, flüchtigem morbilliformem Exanthem, Anämie, Leukocytose, maximaler Senkungsbeschleunigung, Lidödemen, allgemeiner Hyperaesthesie, Lebervergrößerung und zuletzt einer Perikarditis. Zeichen der Nierenschädigung, Blutdruckerhöhung, typische Hautveränderungen, sicht- oder tastbare Gefäßveränderungen, Eosinophilie, Milztumor sowie sichere Hinweise auf eine Herzmuskelerkrankung fehlten, so daß sich klinisch die Diagnose einer Kußmaulschen Krankheit nicht stellen ließ. Nach rascher Besserung unter Prednisontherapie plötzlicher Herztod. Pathologischanatomisch fand sich eine Periarteriitis nodosa mit fast ausschließlichem Befall der Herzkranzgefäße. In der Literatur wurde bisher über 147 Krankheitsfälle im Kindesalter berichtet, darunter 24 Säuglinge, die in einer Tabelle zusammengefaßt werden. Die Häufigkeit der Erkrankung hat zugenommen. Klinik und pathologische Anatomie werden kurz dargestellt, mit Hinweis auf die Eigentümlichkeiten des Kindes- und besonders des Säuglingsalters.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The problem of localization of chromosomes in relation to each other in the interphase nucleus of human lymphocytes was investigated by analysis of chromatid and chromosome aberrations observed in lymphocyte cultures of three patients with Fanconi's anemia, one patient with Bloom's syndrome, and in Trenimon-treated (Trenimon, Bayer) normal cells. Distribution of open gaps and breaks is highly correlated with chromosome length and distribution of breaks involved in chromatid translocations in Fanconi's anemia and in Trenimontreated cells. Both correlations are much lower in Bloom's syndrome. In Fanconi's anemia and in normal cells after Trenimon-treatment, the majority of chromatid translocations are between nonhomologous chromosomes, whereas in Bloom's syndrome mainly homologous chromosomes are involved. Statistical localization of chromosomes in relation to each other in the three-dimensional space by multidimensional scaling gives results consistent with the limited amount of independent evidence.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of pediatrics 79 (1956), S. 21-26 
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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