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  • 1
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Many factors affect the airflow patterns, contaminant removal efficiency and the indoor air quality at individual workstations in office buildings. The effects of office furniture design and workstation layouts on ventilation performance, contaminant removal efficiency and thermal comfort conditions at workstations were studied. The range of furniture configurations and environmental parameters investigated included: 1) partition heights, 2) partition gap size, 3) diffuser types, 4) supply air diffuser location relative to the workstation, 5) return air grill location relative to the workstation, 6) heat source locations, 7) presence of furniture, 8) supply air temperatures, 9) adjacent workstations, 10) contaminant source locations, 11) supply air flow rates, and 12) outdoor air flow rates. The tracer gas technique was used to study experimentally the relative impact of these parameters on the air distribution and ventilation performance, as well as contaminant removal efficiency. Thermal environmental parameters such as air velocity and temperature were monitored at several locations to characterize the impact of these parameters on the thermal comfort conditions.The results showed that the outdoor air flow rate had a significant influence on the mean age of air. The air distributions at all the workstations were good even when the supply air flow rate was relatively low (i.e 5 L/s). At the same time, most of the parameters tested had a significant influence on contaminant removal efficiency when there was a contaminant source present somewhere in the office.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 1 (1991), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: A numerical model has been developed to investigate the contaminant removal and air freshness in a ventilated two-zone enclosure. The average contaminants and the distributions of air age in each zone under variable positions of door, supply and exhaust are compared. The correlation between the average contaminants and each of the main parameters, such as door location, supply and exhaust positions etc., are presented, and the average air ages in both zones are illustrated against door position. It is found that the average air age in the upstream zone is less affected by the door position than that in the downstream zone, and that the door position near the side-walls seems to give better air circulation. It is also concluded that the supply and door positions affect the concentration in the upstream zone significantly, while the exhaust location does not seem to influence the average concentration in either the upstream or the downstream zone.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 6 (1996), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Several airflow and contaminant dispersion models have been developed to study air distribution in buildings. This paper reports the results of a comprehensive validation of two models: COMIS and CONTAM. The validation process was carried out at three different levels; inter-program comparison; validation with experimental data which was collected in a controlled environment; and finally, validation with field measurement data. At the inter-program level, the airflow rates and pressure values predicted by COMIS and CONTAM for a four-zone paper building were compared with the airflow rates and pressures predicted by CBSAIR, AIRNET and BUS. The results show good agreement between these software programs.The second level of validation compares the models’ predictions with measured data collected in a controlled environment. Fan pressurisation, smoke and tracer gas tests were conducted to estimate the permeability of building envelope components, to locate cracks, and to determine the interzonal airflow rates between rooms. The results confirm that there is good agreement between predictions made by COMIS and CONTAM; there are, however, some differences between these models’ predictions and the measured data.The predictions made by these models were also compared with the results of a tracer gas measurement carried out in a residential building. The predicted and measured values were in good agreement.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 4 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: A numerical study has been carried out to predict the indoor air quality in a newly painted partitioned office and to assess the effect of ventilation rate and partition layout on the pre-ventilation time required to allow the contaminant concentration level to drop to an acceptable level. The air-flow pattern, the time history of the average contaminant concentration level in the occupied zone, and the pre-ventilation time were computed by a CFD code with a K-ε turbulence model.A displacement ventilation system, with different operating conditions, was used to remove contaminants in the office. The VB emission model, developed by Guo and Tichenor (1992), has been improved to include the influence of non-uniform concentration distribution on contaminant emission rate from the paints. The average contaminant (VOC) concentration levels in the occupied zone and in each chamber were recorded hourly until the average concentrations in the office were less then 0.0005 g/m3.It has been found that the non-uniform concentration distri- bution greatly influences the decay rate of VOC emissions. The time required for the average concentration in each chamber to reach the threshold level is different, since they are non-uniform. The time differences between the chambers having the highest and lowest concentrations were 3 to 8 hours. The results also show that the time required to reduce the concentration in the occupied zone to the threshold level is dependent on the partition layout. For the same ventilation rate, the required time is approximately 4-8 hours longer when using a side layout than when using a central layout.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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