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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1238
    Keywords: Haemoglobin ; Dissociation curves ; Bohr factor ; Oximetry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Oxygen-haemoglobin dissociation curves were determined on dogs' blood using a modified and miniaturised dissociation curve analyser. The Bohr factor describes the way in which pH varies the PO2 corresponding to a particular oxyhaemoglobin concentration. The factor was similar for three saturations and was little affected by whether the pH was changed by changing PCO2, or by adding fixed acid or alkali. The haemoglobin saturations in the mid-range tended to be lower than those predicted by the equation of Rossing and Cain (1966)
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Anaesthesia 40 (1985), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2044
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The absorption of nitrous oxide in halothane was studied by bubbling nitrous oxide and nitrous oxide/oxygen gas mixtures through a halothane bottle, using 100% oxygen as a control. The gas volume emerging from the halothane bottle was measured each minute, over a period of up to 15 minutes. When oxygen was used as a control gas, the averaged flow rate dropped slightly over the experimental period, due to the cooling of the halothane. However, in the presence of nitrous oxide, the initial flow rate of the gas emerging from the halothane bottle was greatly diminished, but then accelerated rapidly to reach that obtained with oxygen. The results suggested that nitrous oxide dissolved in large quantities in halothane, and the data are consistent with an Ostwald coefficient in excess of 4.0.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1741-0444
    Keywords: Anaesthetics ; Gas concentration ; Online gas analysis ; Refractometer
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The laboratory standard for measurement of gas concentrations in binary mixtures is the manually operated interfence refractometer. We describe an automatic interference refractometer for theatre use incorporating a linear photodiode array and using digital electronics for signal analysis. The support system performs automatic self-calibration, samples gases from an anaesthetic machine, feeds them to the refractometer and presents information on gas concentrations and possible alarm conditions to the anaesthetist. The instrument may be incorporated into a new anaesthetic machine or may be an addition to an existing one. The instrument may also be applied in other fields where concentrations of known gases need to be monitored automatically.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-2614
    Keywords: Instrumentation ; alveolar volume ; airway dead space ; data acquisition ; data analysis ; signal processing
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective.An IBM PC-based real-time data acquisition, monitoringand analysis system was developed for the assessment of cardio-respiratoryfunction, i.e. airway dead space, alveolar volume and pulmonary blood flow,using oscillating inert inspired gas forcing signals. Methods.Theforcing gas mixture was generated by an in-house sinusoid gas delivery unit.The system interfaced with a mass spectrometer and an airway flow transducer,and performed real-time tracking of the breath-by-breath end-inspired,end-expired and mixed-expired concentrations. It calculated thecardio-respiratory parameters using two, i.e. continuous and tidal, in-housemathematical models of the lungs. The system's performance was evaluatedusing a mechanical bench lung, laboratory subjects and awake adults breathingspontaneously. Its predictive accuracy was compared with the measured volumesof the bench lung; single breath CO2 test for airway dead space andN2 washout for alveolar volume in laboratory subjects and awakeadults; and thermal dilution technique for pulmonary blood flow in laboratorysubjects. Results.Close agreements were found between the true andpredicted airway dead space, i.e. mean differences of –12.39%, 14.47%and –17.49%, respectively, and that of alveolar volume, i.e.–8.03%, –3.62% and 7.22%, respectively, in the bench lung,laboratory subject and awake adult studies; and that of pulmonary blood flow(–23.81%) in the laboratory subjects using the continuous lung model.Even closer agreements were observed for airway dead space (–5.8%) andalveolar volume (–4.01%) of the bench lung and for pulmonary blood flow(–8.47%) in the laboratory subjects using the tidal lung model.Conclusions.A system was developed to deliver, monitor and analyseon-line, and in real-time, output data from the sinusoid forcing technique.The technique was administered using the system in various subjects, andproduced favourable predictions.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1741-0444
    Keywords: Arterial oxygen saturation ; Blood levels of oxygen ; Measurement techniques ; Monitoring ; Oxygen ; Pulse oximetry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract An in vitro system was developed capable of testing the accuracy and reproducibility of pulse oximeter readings. The pulse oximeter probe receives signals through a pulsating blood cuvette. The development of the design of the cuvette is described. Using the final design (or ‘model finger’), a comparison is made between readings from a Datex Satlite pulse oximeter (SpO2) and saturation values obtained by use of a multiwavelength bench oximeter (SaO2). Linear regression analysis of the data gives SpO2=0·88 SaO2+11·2 (r=0·979, p〈0·001).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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