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  • 1
    ISSN: 0304-4165
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0303-7207
    Keywords: Islets of Langerhans ; mitochondria ; secretory granules ; stimulus-secretion coupling
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0304-4165
    Keywords: (Mitochondria, pancreas) ; Ca^2^+ metabolism ; Insulin secretion ; Stimulus-secretion coupling ; cyclic AMP
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0304-4165
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Using an indirect immunofluorescence technique the distribution of insulin was mapped in brains of Wistar strain rats and mice. Insulin immunoreactivity was found to be widely distributed throughout mouse CNS, whereas in rat brain a restriction of immunoreactive material to cerebral blood vessels and ependymal cells and/or tanycytes of the brain ventricles was observed. In radioimmunological studies the amount of insulin (IRI) was estimated for different brain areas (cerebral cortex, brain stem, cerebellum, hippocampus, thalamus and hypothalamus). In the case of Wistar rats very low levels of IRI were found. On the contrary, the same regions in mouse brain contained considerably greater amounts of IRI. The comparison between histochemical and biochemical data revealed a good correlation. It is concluded that part of the insulin measured by radioimmunoassay is associated with neuronal structures.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary This paper summarizes the own investigations in ABO blood groups in 2427 propositi with congenital heart diseases. The complete material as well as the several types valvular aortic stenosis (n=242); coarctation of the aorta (n=127); pulmonary valvular stenosis (n=211); patent ductus arteriosus (n=325); atrial septal defect (n=296); ventricular septal defect (n=612); Fallot's tetralogy (n=316) are compared with the distribution of ABO blood groups in a sample of healthy inhabitants of Süd-Niedersachsen (n=694, control I) and 81985 persons of Germany (control II). For statistical evaluation the method of Woolf is used. The relative incidence are not significant in the different proofs that means there are no statistical correlations between ABO blood groups and congenital heart disease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-5233
    Keywords: Key words Glucose transporter isoform (GLUT) 2 ; Streptozotocin-induced diabetes ; Intraportal syngeneic islet transplantation ; LEW.1W rats ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Syngeneic islets were transplanted into the liver of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic LEW.1W rats, and the expression of the glucose transporter isoform GLUT 2, an essential component of the glucose-sensing mechanism of the pancreatic beta-cell, was determined in the grafted islet tissue. Graft-bearing liver was obtained 12, 36, and 60 weeks after transplantation, and tissue sections were immunoperoxidase stained for GLUT 2 and major islet peptides. Islet cell aggregates of different sizes were found in the portal tract and in juxtaposition to the hepatocytes. At all time points, beta-cells in the grafts displayed GLUT 2 expression comparable to that of islets in nondiabetic rats. Islet cells containing immunoreactive insulin and islet amyloid polypetide were plentiful, while those staining positive for glucagon and somatostatin were scarce in these grafts. The results show that beta-cells in islets engrafted in the liver, although initially exposed to chronic hyperglycemia, have the capability of stably expressing GLUT 2 over long-term periods.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2277
    Keywords: Pancreas transplantation, fetal, rat ; Fetal pancreas transplantation, rat ; Graft rejection, pancreas, fetal ; Rejection, pancreas, fetal
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A number of 17.5- to 18.5-day-old fetal pancreases were grafted under the kidney capsule of streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Eight syngeneically grafted glands were sufficient to reverse the diabetes of the recipients within 4 weeks when the recipient rats were treated with insulin for 18 days after transplantation. Eight allogeneic fetal pancreases obtained from one donor strain were rejected after transplantation and the recipients relapsed into hyperglycemia immediately after insulin withdrawal. Eight allogeneic fetal pancreases obtained from eight MHC-different donor strains were also rejected and the recipients relapsed into hyperglycemia after insulin withdrawal. Using fetal pancreases as tissue sources, the combination of the allogeneic graft from different donor strains was not sufficient to prolong the survival time of the grafted tissue.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Pregnancy ; B-cell volume ; insulin ; Wistar rats ; streptozotocin administration ; islets ; DNA synthesis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effect of pregnancy on pancreatic insulin content and relative B-cell volume has been studied in normoglycaemic Wistar rats treated with streptozotocin 14 days before mating. A single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg body weight) caused a significant reduction of pancreatic insulin content and B-cell volume. The islet insulin content was 60% of control values. However, pregnancy-associated adaptation was preserved in these streptozotocin-treated animals. Plasma insulin levels, pancreatic insulin and B-cell volume were significantly enhanced compared with non-pregnant rats investigated on the same date. The incorporation of [3H]-thymidine into islets from pregnant rats (day 10.5) was higher than that in islets isolated from non-pregnant animals. After delivery insulin content and B-cell volume returned to pre-pregnant values. Also during a longer period after streptozotocin treatment (156 days), no measurable enhancement of B-cell volume and pancreatic insulin content was observed indicating the unresponsiveness of residual B cells to compensate spontaneously for the loss despite persisting normoglycaemia.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Nicotinic acid infusion ; FFA-rebound ; stable and brittle diabetes ; insulin secretory response
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Chez 73 diabétiques traités par l'insuline qui montrent un comportement clinique différent du métabolisme, et chez 7 sujets normaux, nous avons fait une épreuve de charge en acide nicotinique par voie veineuse pendant 30 min et nous avons analysé les taux sanguins du glucose, du pyruvate, du lactate, des FFA, du glycérol, des catecholamines et de 11-OH-CS pendant une période de 180 min. En outre nous avons mesuré l'influence de l'acide nicotinique sur l'insulino-sécrétion, in vivo chez quelques sujets diabétiques et normaux par la méthode radiobiologique (ILA), in vitro sur des îlots de Langerhans isolés de souris par la méthode radio-immunologique (IRI). In vitro nous avons vu une élévation significative de l'insulino-sécrétion, in vivo on peut montrer une élévation de l'ILA seulement chez les sujets normaux et chez les diabétiques ayant un métabolisme stable. L'élévation de “FFA-rebound” secondaire provoquée par l'infusion de l'acide nicotinique était en corrélation négative avec l'effet stimulant sur l'insulino-sécrétion. Ce comportement permet une differentiation métabolique des diabétiques de type instable et stable en tenant compte de la glycémie et de la dose quotidienne d'insuline nécessaire pour la compensation du métabolisme.
    Abstract: Zusammenfassung Bei 73 insulinbedürftigen Diabetikern mit klinisch differentem Stoffwechselverhalten und 7 Gesunden wurden eine 30-minütige Nicotinsäureinfusion durchgeführt und die Blutparameter von Glucose, Pyruvat, Lactat, FFS, Glycerin, Katecholaminen und 11-OH-CS über einen Zeitraum von 180 min analysiert. Außerdem wurde die Insulinsekretion in vivo bei einigen diabetischen und gesunden Probanden mittels der ILA, in vitro an isolierten Langerhans'schen Inseln aus Mäusepankreata mittels dem IRI unter Nikotinsäureeinwirkung untersucht. Es konnte demonstriert werden, daß Nikotinsäure in vitro zu einer significanten Steigerung der Insulin-ausschüttung führt. In vivo ist eine Stimulation der ILA nur bei Gesunden und stoffwechselstabilen Diabetikern nachweisbar. Das Ausmaß des sekundären Nicotinsäure-induzierten FFS-Rebound steht in negativer Relation zur Stimulierbarkeit der ILA. Es gestattet unter Einbeziehung des Blutglucoseverhaltens und des exogenen, zur Stoffwechselkompensation erforderlichen täglichen Insulinbedarfs eine metabolische Differenzierung des stoffwechsellabilen und stoffwechselstabilen Diabetestyps.
    Notes: Summary The effect of a 30 min infusion of nicotinic acid on the blood levels of glucose, pyruvate, lactate, FFA, glycerol, catecholamines, and 11-OH-corticosteroids was investigated over 180 min in 73 insulin-dependent diabetics with different clinical states of metabolism and in 7 healthy subjects. The action of nicotinic acid on insulin secretion was measured in vivo in some diabetic and some healthy subjects by means of ILA. Studies on insulin secretion in vitro were done by measuring the insulin release from isolated islets of mouse pancreas. The insulin content of the incubation medium was estimated with the radio-immunological method. — It was shown that nicotinic acid in vitro stimulates insulin release from B cells significantly. In vivo the rise of serum ILA after nicotinic acid infusion was only detectable in healthy subjects and in diabetics of the stable type. Furthermore, a negative correlation was demonstrated between the peak of the FFA-rebound induced by nicotinic acid and the stimulatory effect of the drug on insulin secretion. The behaviour of blood glucose during infusion of nicotinic acid together with the daily insulin dosage permitted a metabolic distinction to be made between diabetics of the stable and unstable (‘brittle’) type.
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