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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Diabetes ; insulin ; sulphonylureas ; biguanides ; drug utilization ; geographical differences
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The consumption of insulin and oral antidiabetic drugs was measured at the gross sales level in Sweden and Norway and at the prescription level in Northern Ireland. “Agreed daily doses” were used as units of comparison, which defined as follows: insulin 40 I.U., tolbutamide 1 g, acetohexamide 500 mg etc. Consumption was expressed as the number of “agreed daily doses” per 1,000 inhabitants per day. This provided a rough estimate of the number of subjects for whom the drug had been prescribed per 1,000 population. The data were collected during the three months April – June 1971. Marked differences in the consumption of antidiabetic drugs were found between the three countries and also between areas within each country. The consumption of insulin was similar in Norway and Northern Ireland (3.5 and 3.9 agreed daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants per day), but almost twice as high in Sweden. In Norway much lower use was found in certain rural areas. The variation in the consumption of oral antidiabetic drugs was even more marked. Surprisingly, consumption was considerably higher in Sweden (15.8) than in the nearby Norway (7.3), and was even lower in Northern Ireland (4.3). The major use was of sulphonylureas, especially chlorpropamide. Within the countries there was marked regional variation in the choice of individual biguanides and sulphonylureas. The data are discussed in relation to such factors as the incidence of diabetes, the sole use of dietary treatment etc. It is concluded that studies in depth, which link the actual use of drugs by patients to diagnosis, diabetic symptoms and clinical outcome of treatment are necessary in order to explore the reasons behind the marked geographical differences and to define a rational drug policy. However, the methods described in the study may be used for early detection of gross national differences in drug utilization, the further investigation of which may reveal to be of great public health interest.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: ceftazidime ; cholecystectomy ; pharmacokinetics ; biliary tree tissue level
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary After administration of ceftazidime as a 1 g i.v. bolus injection, its concentration was measured by HPLC at frequent intervals in serum, bile and tissue from different parts of the biliary tract in 32 patients undergoing operation for biliary tract disease. In bile from the functioning gallbladder and common bile duct, a high concentration of ceftazidime was found, mean 18.5 and 26.6 mg/l, respectively. In bile from the non-functioning gallbladder, a very low concentration was found (〈1.5 mg/l). Ceftazidime in the gallbladder wall varied considerably with the type and degree of inflammation judged histologically; the mean level was 21.3 mg/kg. The elimination half-life of ceftazidime was 1.74 h, apparent volume of distribution 20.01 and total plasma clearance 133 ml/min. In bile from T-tube specimens a high concentration was found, the mean peak values being 27.2 mg/l. However, biliary excretion of the drug was low at less than 0.5% of the administered dose. These concentrations of ceftazidime were sufficient to inhibit the in-vitro growth of pathogens, namely theEnterobacteriaecae commonly responsible for biliary tract infection.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    International orthopaedics 7 (1983), S. 99-103 
    ISSN: 1432-5195
    Keywords: Lipomembranous osteodysplasia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Présentation d'un cas de destruction osseuse symétrique de type kystique chez une jeune femme; dans les régions atteintes l'os était remplacé par un tissu lipomembraneux et les lésions ne présentaient que ces seules caractéristiques tant au microscope qu'au microscope électronique. La malade se plaignait de douleurs osseuses et des fractures spontanées survinrent au niveau des membres inférieurs. L'atteinte osseuse s'accompagnait de signes psychiatriques de leucoencéphalopathie et d'atrophie cérébrale. L'étiologie est inconnue, mais il est possible que la maladie ait une origine génétique. Le traitement n'a pu être que symptomatique.
    Notes: Summary A case is reported of symmetrical cystic bone destruction in a young woman; in the affected areas bony tissue was replaced by a lipomembranous materal and the lesions show unique features on electron and light microscopy. The patient suffered from skeletal pain and spontaneous fractures occured in weightbearing bones. The bony disease was associated with psychiatric signs of leucoencephalopathy and brain atrophy. The aetiology is unknown, but it is possible that the condition may have a genetic basis. Treatment can only be directed towards the relief of symptoms.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-01-28
    Description: Background/Aim: There are several definitions of limited disease (LD) in small cell lung cancer (SCLC), differing with respect to N3 disease accepted. We analyzed patients from a randomized trial comparing two schedules of thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) in LD SCLC to investigate whether there were survival differences between N3 subcategories (n=144). Patients and Methods: Patients with a baseline CT scan available were analysed. Patients received four courses of cisplatin/etoposide and TRT of 45 Gy/30 fractions (twice daily) or 42 Gy/15 fractions (once daily). Results: Median overall survival (OS) was 23.3 months in the whole cohort. N3-patients (n=37) had shorter survival than those with N0-2 (16.7 vs. 33.0 months; p〈0.001). There were no significant OS-differences between the N3 subcategories, but patients with metastases to two or more N3 regions had shorter survival than other N3 patients (13.4 vs. 19.9 months; p=0.011). Conclusion: There were no survival differences between the N3 subcategories, suggesting that all N3 disease should be considered as LD.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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