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  • 1
    ISSN: 1600-0765
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: To explore aspects of cellular immune responses in the pathogenesis of periodontitis we analyzed phenotype and function of peripheral T cells. Two groups of subjects participated: one group consisted of 10 highly susceptible patients with severe periodontitis (mean age 29 years) and a control group consisted of 10 age, gender and race matched subjects with gingivitis. From all subjects peripheral blood was collected. The results showed that the numbers of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells as well as the CD4/CD8 ratio, and the proliferative capacity of T cells, were not different between the two groups of subjects. Also, proportions of naive and memory T cells for both the CD4+ and CD8+ subpopulations were not different. Functional heterogeneity within the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell compartments was determined by intracellular analysis of interferon-γ(IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) production. On the basis of these latter analyses among CD4+ and CD8+ cells, T helper (Th) 1 or Th2 function and T cytotoxic (Tc) 1 or Tc2 function, respectively, could be deduced. No significant differences in proportions of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells positive for intracellular IFN-γ or IL-4 were observed between periodontitis patients and gingivitis controls; however a higher level of intracellular IL-4 in CD8+ T cells was seen in periodontitis patients. This might indicate that there is a shift towards a Tc2 function within the CD8+ T cell subpopulation. The current explorative study suggests that further research into the role of CD8+T cells in the pathogenesis of periodontitis is warranted.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1745-4530
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Grains of brown rice, paddy variety IR-8, were subjected to two types of uniaxial compressive loading, constant displacement rate and sinusoidally varying stress, to determine behavior over a wide range of time scale. Grains from four different moisture level groups were used. With a time decrease from 120 to 1.6 × 10−4s the relaxation modulus increased 15, 25, 16 and 20 fold at respective moisture contents of 12, 17, 22 and 27%. A master relaxation curve for each moisture content is presented. Understanding the viscoelastic behavior of brown rice as a function at time and moisture content is basic to the solution of stress-strain analysis problems.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The effects of temperature on instrumental textural measurements of cooked Alaska pollock gels were evaluated. Independent variables were: raw materials (minced muscle, washed minced muscle alone or with cryoprotectants), cooking schedule (90°C for 20 min with/without preconditioning at 25°C) and test temperatures. Gels tested at 5°C were more brittle than those tested at 45–55°C. Gels preset at 25°C for 1 hr prior to cooking at 90°C had higher fracture shear stress values and were influenced differently by test temperatures than those not preset suggesting cooking history influenced structure of the gels at the molecular level. Results indicated gels set at 25°C were probably stabilized by more covalent bonds.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The effects of cyclic freezing and thawing upon the quality of frozen surimi of two species were studied with respect to sol viscosity, sol rigidity changes during thermal processing and structural failure properties of the cooked gel. A torsion test, used to determine the strength of gels subjected to different thermal histories, revealed that increasing the number of freeze-thaw cycles reduced the strength and deformability of both sand trout and Alaska pollack surimis. Continuous monitoring of sol rigidity during thermal processing showed little changes in thermal transition temperatures caused by freeze-thaw abuse for either surimi but shifts occurred in overall rigidity levels. Particularly dramatic changes were induced in the Alaska pollack rigidity thermogram. The rigidity thermograms of sand trout and Alaska pollack were significantly different, as were their responses to freeze-thaw abuse and low temperature (4°C and 40°C) pretreatments.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Rigidities of surimi [refined minced fish (MF)] sols, alone and in combination with egg white (EW) and whey protein concentrate (WPC) were measured during constant-rate heating by a nondestructive technique. Each of the protein types tested showed measureable changes due to variation of the heating rate or NaCl concentration of the sol. Rigidity and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) thermograms for mixtures resembled composites of the individual protein source profiles, indicating that no major changes occurred in thermal gelling properties of the component proteins due to mixing. Maximum rigidity values indicated more favorable gelation of MF/WPC than MF/EW combinations.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Gel strengths (work of penetration) of surimi (refined minced fish, MF) alone and in combination with egg white or whey protein concentrate were periodically measured by an annular pump during constant rate heating. Combination gels containing low percentages of MF were of a lesser strength than an additive relationship would have predicted. However, the strength of gels containing greater percentages of MF did relate to the gel strengths of the uncombined proteins.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Comminuted mixtures of fish muscle (surimi) and salt undergo a sol-gel transformation when subjected to heat processing which is responsible for the textural characteristics of fabricated imitation shellfish meats. Upon “setting” a fish muscle sol at temperatures below those conventionally used for heat processing meat products, a fine translucent gel network is formed which imparts strength and resiliency to the subsequently cooked gel product. Increased firmness and opacity, as well as some loss in cohesiveness, were noted upon processing surimi sols at higher temperatures. The low temperature “setting” property of fish proteins necessitates rapid forming or extrusion of the product prior to the initiation of network formation to insure a firm texture in the final product.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 45 (1980), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Sweet potato purees were pH adjusted (some also heat treated) and stored up to 9 months in sealed containers at room temperature. Some purees were treated with amylolytic enzymes before or after storage. Rheology and carbohydrates were evaluated after 0, 3, 7, and 9 months. Nonenzyme treated purees at 4.2 pH were semi-solids after 3 months storage, but those at 1.5 and 11.5 pH had lower viscosities. Amylolytic enzyme treatments lowered molecular weights and viscosities. Pre-storage treatments were more effective than post storage in molecular weight reduction. Post storage treatments were more effective in viscosity reduction.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 44 (1979), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Effects of rate of heating and final internal temperatures on the texture of fish gels were studied using mechanically deboned fish tissues of 2 species and 2 harvest locations. Generally, rapid heating to 85°C internal temperature (using 100°C steam) produced a firmer, more springy texture in fish gels in comparison with those heated slowly to 70°C internal temperature. However, these thermal effects on gel textures were species and harvest location dependent. Degradations of tropomyosin and myosin observed in cooked fish gels were highly related to gel textural properties. Results further suggested that changes in muscle proteins during heating were caused by proteolytic factor(s) in the sarcoplasmic fraction. The proteolytic crude fraction was isolated and partially characterized. Optimal temperature for proteolytic activity was 60°C; optimal pH was between pH 8.0 and pH 8.5; calcium ion activated the proteolytic activity and the optimal calcium ion concentration for activation was 1 mM; metal chelators, EDTA and EGTA, inhibited the proteolytic activity. A thorough understanding of these proteolytic factors and their subsequent control is important for the utilization of mechanically deboned fish tissues.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 59 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Dynamic rheological properties of actomyosin from two species (Alaska pollock, Atlantic croaker) were monitored during preincubation (setting) at 25°C and 37°C. followed bv nronrammed (l°C/min) cookinn to 77°C. Added guinea pig liver transgluianase enhanced gelation, as indicated by increases in both storage modulus (G′) and percentage of polymerized myosin heavy chain (MHC). In the presence of added transglutaminase maximum G′ and MHC polymerization occurred at the same conditions of pH and temperature which were optimum for setting of surimi pastes. This suggested that the transglutaminase-mediated setting reaction in surimi was constrained more by the conformation of the substrate (i.e., myosin) than by that of the enzyme.
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