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  • 1
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The complementary DNA clones encoding the HLA-B27 heavy chain and /32-microglobulin (/32m) were inserted into the vector pGem-3Zf(-) and mRNA was transcribed by SP6 RNA polymerase14. The mRNAs were separately translated in vitro in a lysate prepared from rabbit reticulocytes and supplemented with ...
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1546-1718
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] The Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) has been established to conduct combined case-control analyses with augmented statistical power to try to confirm putative genetic associations with breast cancer. We genotyped nine SNPs for which there was some prior evidence of an association with ...
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1335
    Keywords: Key words Breast cancer  ;  Genetic susceptibility  ;  Modifying factors  ;  Survival analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Female carriers of mutations in the BRCA1 gene on chromosome 17q have a very high risk of developing breast and/or ovarian cancer during their lifetime. There is, however, little knowledge of to what extent non-genetic risk factors, such as age at menarche, age at first birth, and body mass index, alter the age at onset of disease. We identified individuals showing a high probability of linkage to BRCA1 and examined the effect of other known risk factors on disease risk. A total of 43 families with at least three breast or ovarian cancer cases, including two affected before 60 years of age, were studied for linkage to the susceptibility locus BRCA1. Blood samples from relevant family members were used to genotype for at least three chromosome 17q polymorphic markers. Information on reproductive history, hormone use and lifestyle factors was collected from female members using a self-administered questionnaire. Diagnoses of breast and ovarian cancer were verified through pathology reports and paraffin blocks were obtained when available. Multipoint LOD (logarithm of the odds) scores were calculated and individuals from 10 families with a posteriori probability for linkage greater than 0.90 were used for further analysis. Forty-six BRCA1 carriers were identified by the disease haplotype; 30 were affected with breast cancer and 5 with ovarian cancer. Proportional- hazards analysis of age at onset of breast cancer yielded increased relative risks of 1.74 for early age at menarche (〈14 years), 1.58 for late age at first birth ( ≥ 25 years) or nulliparity, and 2.78 for recent year of birth ( ≥ 1940); however, none of the risk estimates was statistically significant. When both breast and ovarian cancer were considered as disease endpoints, the birth cohort effect was stronger and age at first birth showed no effect. Our data provide some evidence that reproductive risk factors for breast cancer have an effect on age at onset for BRCA1 carriers. However, considering that our analyses were based on limited numbers, these results warrant further clarification.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1335
    Keywords: Breast cancer ; Genetic susceptibility ; Modifying factors ; Survival analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Female carriers of mutations in theBRCA1 gene on chromosome 17q have a very high risk of developing breast and/or ovarian cancer during their life-time. There is, however, little knowledge of to what extent non-genetic risk factors, such as age at menarche, age at first birth, and body mass index, alter the age at onset of disease. We identified individuals showing a high probability of linkage toBRCA1 and examined the effect of other known risk factors on disease risk. A total of 43 families with at least three breast or ovarian cancer cases, including two affected before 60 years of age, were studied for linkage to the susceptibility locusBRCA1. Blood samples from relevant family members were used to genotype for at least three chromosome 17q polymorphic markers. Information on reproductive history, hormone use and lifestyle factors was collected from female members using a self-administered questionnaire. Diagnoses of breast and ovarian cancer were verified through pathology reports and paraffin blocks were obtained when available. Multipoint LOD (logarithm of the odds) scores were calculated and individuals from 10 families with a posteriori probability for linkage greater than 0.90 were used for further analysis. Forty-sixBRCA1 carriers were identified by the disease haplotype; 30 were affected with breast cancer and 5 with ovarian cancer. Proportional-hazards analysis of age at onset of breast cancer yielded increased relative risks of 1.74 for early age at menarche (〈14 years), 1.58 for late age at first birth (≥25 years) or nulliparity, and 2.78 for recent year of birth (≥1940); however, none of the risk estimates was statistically significant. When both breast and ovarian cancer were considered as disease endpoints, the birth cohort effect was stronger and age at first birth showed no effect. Our data provide some evidence that reproductive risk factors for breast cancer have an effect on age at onset forBRCA1 carriers. However, considering that our analyses were based on limited numbers, these results warrant further clarification.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2196
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: BRCA1 mutation ; breast cancer ; disease-free survival ; overall survival ; pathology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Reports from different countries have been inconclusive in attempting to relate the BRCA1 mutation status to the survival of breast cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate overall and disease-free survival for German hereditary breast cancer patients. Data on clinical outcome and data on age at diagnosis of breast cancer, histology, tumor size, lymph node status, histological grade, and laterality of 36 breast cancer patients from 12 families with a BRCA1 mutation and from one family with strong evidence for linkage to BRCA1 were compared with those of 49 hereditary breast cancer patients from 23 families that did not harbor a BRCA1 mutation. Overall and disease-free survival was estimated for both groups. BRCA1 mutation carriers had a significantly earlier age of diagnosis than non-carriers (p = 0.0001) and more frequently developed contralateral breast cancer (p = 0.04). Also, BRCA1-associated tumors more frequently were of larger size (p = 0.041) and higher grade of malignancy (p = 0.005) than non-BRCA1-associated tumors. Whereas no difference in overall survival was seen, disease-free survival at 10 years differed significantly with 53.3% for BRCA1 mutation carriers and 76% for non- carriers (p = 0.02). However, after stratification for age and in multivariate analysis for mutation status, age, and bilaterality, it was shown that the worse prognosis for BRCA1 mutation carriers disappeared. Our results suggest that the worse prognosis of BRCA1 mutation carriers in terms of disease-free survival may in large part be due to the age of onset of breast cancer in this population. Thus, BRCA1 mutation status does not appear to be an independent prognostic factor.
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