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  • 1
    ISSN: 0731-7085
    Keywords: 5-HMF. ; Glucose parenterals ; glucose degradation
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0731-7085
    Keywords: Thevetin B ; cross-reactivity ; digitoxin ; fluorescence polarization immunoassay.
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Previous studies on central 5-hydroxytryptamine1A (5-HT1A) receptors have consistently shown the existence of a GTP-insensitive component of agonist binding, i.e., binding of [3H]8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin ([3H]8-OH-DPAT) that persists in the presence of 0.1 mM GTP or guanylylimidodiphosphate (GppNHp). The molecular basis for this apparent heterogeneity was investigated pharmacologically and biochemically in the present study. The GppNHp-insensitive component of [3H]8-OH-DPAT binding increased spontaneously by exposure of rat hippocampal membranes or their 3-[3-(cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propane sulfonate-soluble extracts to air; it was reduced by preincubation of solubilized 5-HT1A binding sites in the presence of dithiothreitol and, in contrast, reversibly increased by preincubation in the presence of various oxidizing reagents like sodium tetrathionate or hydrogen peroxide. In addition, exposure of hippocampal soluble extracts to short-cross-linking reagents specific for thiols produced an irreversible increase in the proportion of GppNHp-insensitive over total [3H]8-OH-DPAT binding. The pharmacological properties of this GppNHp-insensitive component of [3H]8-OH-DPAT binding were similar to those of 5-HT1A sites in the absence of nucleotide. Sucrose gradient sedimentation of solubilized 5-HT1A binding sites treated by dithiothreitol or sodium tetrathionate showed that oxidation prevented the dissociation by GTP of the complex formed by the 5-HT1A receptor binding subunit (R[5-HT1A]) and a guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein). Moreover, the oxidation of -SH groups by sodium tetrathionate did not prevent the inactivation of [3H]8-OH-DPAT specific binding by N-ethylmaleimide, in contrast to that expected from an interaction of both reagents with the same -SH groups on the R[5-HT1A]–G protein complex. These data suggest that the appearance of GTP-insensitive [3H]8-OH-DPAT specific binding occurs as a result of the (spontaneous) oxidation of essential -SH groups (different from those preferentially inactivated by N-ethylmaleimide) on the R[5-HT1A]–G protein complex.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract— The incubation of brain stem slices from adult rats in a K+-enriched medium containing a 5-HT uptake inhibitor (fluoxetine) significantly increased their capacity to synthesize 5-HT from tryptophan. The K+-induced stimulation of 5-HT synthesis was at least partly dependent on the depletion of the indoleamine in tissues since: (1) a good correlation was found between the respective changes in 5-HT release and synthesis evoked by high K+ concentrations in the presence of various 5-HT uptake inhibitors; (2) the modifications in endogenous 5-HT levels produced by in vim treatments with drugs (reserpine, pargyline) or by incubating slices with 5-HT altered the stimulating effect of high K+ concentrations and fluoxetine on 5-HT synthesis; (3) the replacement of Ca2+ by Co2+ (4 mM) or EGTA (0.1 mM) in the incubating medium completely prevented the increased 5-HT release and synthesis evoked by high K+ concentrations and fluoxetine.The extraction of tryptophan hydroxylase from incubated tissues revealed that the increased 5-HT synthesis occurring in K+-enriched medium was associated with an activation of this enzyme. Kinetic analyses indicated that this activation resulted from an increase in the Vmax of tryptophan hydroxylase, its apparent affinities for both tryptophan and 6-MPH4 being not significantly affected. In contrast to the tryptophan hydroxylase from tissues incubated in normal physiological medium, the activated enzyme from tissues depolarized by K+ was hardly stimulated by Ca2+-mediated phosphorylating conditions. This led to the proposition of a hypothetical model by which the Ca2+ influx produced by the neuronal depolarization would trigger the activity of a Ca2+-dependent protein kinase capable of activating tryptophan hydroxylase. Although this sequence is still largely speculative it must be emphasized that, as expected from such a model, the regional differences in the K+-evoked activation of tryptophan hydroxylase in slices (cerebral cortex 〉 brain stem 〉 spinal cord) were parallel to those of the Ca2+-dependent protein phosphorylation (r= 0.92) and those of the activating effect of phosphorylating conditions on soluble tryptophan hydroxylase (r= 0.96).
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: —The relationships between plasma tryptophan and 5-HT metabolism in the CNS were studied in newborn rats and compared with adults. Both the concentration of free tryptophan in plasma and that of the amino-acid in brain were much higher immediately after birth than later on. Drugs such as salicylate and chlordiazepoxide, which increased brain tryptophan concentrations in adults by displacing the plasma amino acid bound to serum albumin, were ineffective in newborn rats: most of the amino acid being already free in their plasma. The study of 5-HT metabolism in brain stem slices revealed that the affinity of the uptake process for tryptophan was higher in newborn than in adult animals, whereas the reverse situation was observed for the enzyme complex involved in 5-HT synthesis (lower apparent Km in adults). In addition, the catabolism of newly synthesized 5-HT was more rapid in newborn than in adult tissues. Finally, the free state of tryptophan in plasma of newborn animals induced in brain both a high amino acid concentration and, in contrast to the situation observed in adults, a synthesis rate of 5-HT very near its maximal value.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 20 (1973), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The effects of changes in intraneuronal levels of 5-HT induced by monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) given in vivo or exogenous 5-HT added in vitro on 5-HT synthesis in striatal slices of the rat have been examined. The synthesis of 5-HT was estimated by the measurement of the total formation of [3H]5-HT and [3H]5-hydroxyindole acetic acid from [3H]tryptophan and by calculation of the conversion index (CI) of tryptophan into 5-HT. The small formation of [3H]tryptamine and [3H]indole acetic acid from [3H]tryptophan was taken into account in the estimation of 5-HT synthesis. Both MAOI pretreament (180 min) and 5-HT (2·8 μM) inhibited synthesis. The latter effect persisted in catecholamine depleted tissues and was related to intraneuronal changes in 5-HT levels, since it could be prevented by chlorimipramine. The inhibition of 5-HT synthesis was related to the decreased conversion of tryptophan into 5-hydroxytryptophan and could not be prevented by p-chloro-phenylalanine pretreatment which depleted 5-HT levels or by dibutyryl cyclic AMP which normally stimulated 5-HT synthesis. Tryptophan uptake in slices was not affected by exogenous 5-HT. The various mechanisms possibly involved in the end product regulation process of 5-HT synthesis are discussed.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Genetic deficiency of monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) induces major alterations of mood and behaviour in human. Because serotonin (5-HT) is involved in mood regulation, and MAO-A is responsible for the catabolism of 5-HT, we investigated 5-HT mechanisms in knock-out mice (2-month-old) lacking MAO-A, using microdialysis, electrophysiological, autoradiographic and molecular biology approaches. Compared to paired wild-type mice, basal extracellular 5-HT levels were increased in ventral hippocampus (+202%), frontal cortex (+96%) and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN, +147%) of MAO-A mutant mice. Conversely, spontaneous firing rate of 5-HT neurons in the DRN (recorded under chloral hydrate anaesthesia) was ∼40% lower in mutants. Acute 5-HT reuptake blockade by citalopram (0.2 and 0.8 mg/kg i.v.) produced a much larger increase in extracellular 5-HT levels (by ∼4 fold) and decrease in DRN neuronal firing (with a ∼4.5 fold decrease in the drug's ED50) in MAO-A knock-out mice, which expressed lower levels of the 5-HT transporter throughout the brain (−13 to −34% compared to wild-type levels). The potency of the 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT to produce hypothermia and to reduce the firing of DRN serotoninergic neurons was significantly less in the mutants, indicating a desensitization of 5-HT1A autoreceptors. This was associated with a decreased autoradiographic labelling of these receptors (−27%) in the DRN. Altogether, these data indicate that, in MAO-A knock-out mice, the enhancement of extracellular 5-HT levels induces a down-regulation of the 5-HT transporter, and a desensitization of 5-HT1A autoreceptors which allows the maintenance of tonic activity of 5-HT neurons in the DRN.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Following the cloning and sequencing of the A subunit of the 5-HT3 receptor, two alternatively spliced isoforms, 5-HT3-AS and 5-HT3-AL, have been identified. In order to analyse the distribution of the receptor, a polyclonal antibody has been produced against the short form which is the most abundant in the central nervous system [Doucet et al. (2000) Neuroscience 95, 881–892]. As expected from the recognition of functional 5-HT3 receptors, immunostaining by this anti-5-HT3-R-AS antibody matched the distribution of the high-affinity 5-HT3 binding sites in the rat brain and spinal cord. 5-HT3-AS-like immunoreactivity was detected at low levels in the limbic system, particularly in the amygdala and the hippocampus, and in the frontal, piriform and entorhinal cortices. High levels of immunoreactivity were found in the brainstem, mainly in the nucleus tractus solitarius and the nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve, and in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. At the ultrastructural level, immunostaining was generally found associated with axons and nerve terminals (70–80%) except in the hippocampus, where labelled dendrites were more abundant (56%). This preferential localization on nerve endings is consistent with the well-documented physiological role of 5-HT3 receptors in the control of neurotransmitter release. However, the different distribution in the hippocampus raises the question of whether differential addressing mechanisms exist for preferentially targeting 5-HT3 receptors to postsynaptic dendritic sites as compared to presynaptic nerve endings, depending on the nature of the neurons bearing these receptors.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Key words In vitro metabolism ; Cyclosporin A ; Renal and hepatic microsomes ; HPLC-mass spectrometry ; FPIA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Cyclosporin A (CsA) is in vivo mainly metabolized by hepatic cytochrome P450 IIIA to more than 21 metabolites, the major ones known as: M1, M17 and M21. The aim of this work is to explore the in vitro metabolism of CsA after incubation, in the presence of NADPH, with renal or hepatic microsomes obtained from rabbits pretreated with rifampycin (enzyme inducer) or erythromycin (enzyme inhibitor). The presumed metabolites were separated by semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and identified in each collected fraction by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) (HPLC-FPIA) using a non-specific polyclonal antibody. They were also analyzed by HPLC-mass spectrometry (MS) using fast atom bombardment (HPLC-MS-FAB). Five collected fractions gave positive results with FPIA. The major metabolites found were M1, M17 and M21 after identification by HPLC-MS-FAB and comparison with three corresponding standard metabolites. The CsA biotransformation rates were calculated by the amount of unmetabolized CsA and were linear with time. These mean rates (Vm) for 12-min incubation by renal microsomes of rabbits treated with rifampicin or erythromycin or untreated (control) were 0.11, 0.02 and 0.04 nmol/min×mg microsomal protein, respectively. These rates were 15 -, 37 -, and 30-fold lower than those obtained with hepatic microsomes of rabbits treated identically. As CsA metabolites are less cytotoxic than the parent drug, this weak renal biotransformation of CsA after in vitro incubation should be one of the mechanisms of its in vivo nephrotoxicity.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0021-9673
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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