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  • 1
    ISSN: 0304-8853
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0304-8853
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Key words Pineal region tumor ; Germ cell tumor ; Pineoblastoma ; Pineocytoma ; Incidence ; Outcome
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The authors retrospectively reviewed 48 patients treated at Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) between 1986 and 1995. There were 35 children and 13 adults, accounting for 10.1% of 345 pediatric and 0.68% of 1914 adult brain tumors in SNUH during the same period. The 48 cases consisted of 33 cases of germ cell tumor (69%, GCT); 6 of pineoblastoma (PB, 12.5%); 3 of pineocytoma (PC, 6.3%); 3 of anaplastic astrocytoma (6.3%); 1 of astrocytoma; 1 of glioblastoma; and 1 of ependymoma. The median age was 13 years (range 1–59) and the male-to-female ratio was 3.36:1. The most frequent presenting symptom was due to increased intracranial pressure (90%), followed by Parinaud syndrome or diplopia (50%). Patients with a benign tumor, such as teratoma (TE), astrocytoma, or ependymoma, underwent surgery by the occipital transtentorial approach (OTT) for attempted radical resection without adjuvant therapy, while patients with immature teratoma (imTE), PC, and anaplastic astrocytoma underwent regional radiotherapy (RT) after debulking via OTT. Seven patients with nongerminomatous malignant GCT (NG-MGCT) and 3 with germinoma (GE) underwent craniospinal radiation only, 6 with GE, a NG-MGCT, and 2 with GE+TE received craniospinal radiotherapy (CSRT) after debulking via OTT. Three patients with GE, 4 with NG-MGCT, and 3 with PB underwent radiochemotherapy after debulking via OTT. Forty-four patients were followed up after treatment. The median follow-up period was 36 months. All patients with GE were alive after RT at 36 months (median) of follow-up (range 7–70 months). All with GE+TE and TE were alive. Three patients with PC or astrocytoma were also alive with stable or no evidence of disease. In 1 of the 3 cases of imTE there was a recurrence. However, 4 patients with NG-MGCT died, all of whom had undergone CSRT only; 2 PB patients were alive (12, 19 months), 1 in a moribund status (36 months), and 2 were dead (6, 60 months). The overall mean survival time with pineal tumors was 66 months and the 3-year survival rate was 84% with minimal posttreatment complications. It is concluded that pineal region tumors have male and childhood predominances, and the most common tumor is GCT. The majority of pineal region tumors are malignant. Pineal region tumors can be approached safely and effectively and the surgical complications are mostly transient. Their prognosis is dependent on the pathologies and treatment modalities.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Histochemical ; Delineation ; Infarcted ; Brain
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Tetrazolium salts, histochemical indicators of mitochondrial respiratory enzymes, have been used by some pathologists to detect infarcts in myocardium. We explored the utility of this technique in detecting experimental brain infarcts and report our findings. Infarcts were produced in cats, gerbils, and rats by unilateral temporal and permanent cerebral vessel occlusion. After various time periods the animals were killed, and their brains were reacted with 2,3,5, triphenyl, 2H-tetrazolium chloride (TTC). The experimental and contralateral hemispheres were examined by light and electron microscopy. The TTC-stained tissue was correlated with histology. In some situations the histological condition of the tissue correlated well with the TTC staining results. Brain regions supplied by temporarily occluded vessels and judged infarcted by light and electron microscopy did not stain. In these regions less than 6% of the mitochondria were intact. In brain tissue from animals with permanent vessel occlusion (no reflow) mitochondria were intact despite the fact that other cellular organelles, such as nuclei, were destroyed. TTC stained such mitochondria and as a result could not distinguish infarcted brain in complete ischemia situations (no reflow). Another draw back to this staining procedure was 36 h after infarction macrophages with intact mitochondria would replace damage neurons and be stained. Under ideal conditions though this technique can detect irreversibly damaged brain as early as 2.5 h after artery occlusion.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Mixed tumour ; schwannoma ; meningioma ; neurofibromatosis-2
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The authors present the case of an intracranial tumour consisting of both schwannoma and meningioma within the same tumour, in a patient with neurofibromatosis-2 (NF-2). A pre-operative diagnosis of this mixed tumour was not made. However, retrospectively, a meningiomatous area was found inside the acoustic neurinoma on magnetic resonance (MR) images. Predominant schwannoma with a minor component of meningioma was confirmed by histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations. The transitional zones of these two different tumours were macroscopically sharp but microscopically interdigitated. The patient had another meningioma and schwannoma in a separate section of the cranial cavity. Based on this patient, it is suggested that the collision of two kinds of tumours is the most likely hypothesis to explain the development of mixed components of schwannoma and meningioma within the same tumour.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Keywords: Gliomatosis cerebri; magnetic resonance image; radiation therapy; prognosis.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary  To clarify clinical features and to elucidate prognostic factors and prognosis, the authors retrospectively analyzed 16 cases of gliomatosis cerebri treated at Seoul National University Hospital between January 1988 and December 1995. Age at diagnosis ranged from 19 to 62 (median 34) years and male to female ratio was 10:6. Most presented with headache or seizure, and the mean duration of symptoms was 12.8 months. A poorly defined diffuse high signal intensity lesion, extending in T2-weighted images for two lobes or more, was the characteristic magnetic resonance (MR) image finding. On postcontrast T1-weighted MR imaging, focal enhancement of the lesion was detected in five cases. All patients underwent histological confirmation by craniotomy (9 cases) or stereotactic biopsy (7 cases). Histologically, all patients had compatible findings of gliomatosis cerebri which are the widespread infiltration of neoplastic glial cells with minimal destruction of pre-existing structures.  After histological diagnosis, external radiation therapy was begun except in one case, who declined this treatment. Fourteen patients completed the whole procedure and received the planned dose (mean 5780 cGy). Median survival time after diagnosis was 38.4 months. In univariate analysis, the Ki-67 labelling index (〉1) showed significant correlation with the length of survival (p=0.006).  It is suggested that 1) gliomatosis cerebri can be diagnosed by a combination of MR imaging findings and histological examination; 2) histological diagnosis and external radiation therapy might be a good treatment modality; 3) the Ki-67 labelling index correlates significantly with survival time.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Keywords: 75.60.Jp ; 75.30.Gw
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The iron granular solid, in which ultrafine iron particles are dispersed, has been prepared with both SiO2 and Cu matrices using the sol-gel method. The structure and morphology of these granular solid samples are investigated by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The magnetic properties are measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer with 20 kOe maximum applied field. It is found that the coereivity decreases very slightly with temperature from 80 to 300 K for these Fe−SiO2 and Fe−Cu granular solid samples with different average size of iron particles from 50 to 300 Å. The magnetic anisotropy has been obtained from the measured magnetization curves for these granular solid samples using the law of approach to saturation, and the obtained values of the effective magnetic anisotropy are all more than 106 erg/cm3, which are larger than the value of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy for bulk iron. The coercivity vs temperature for these granular solid samples has been calculated using the Kneller and Luborsky theory, in which the magnetic anisotropy values obtained from the law of approach to saturation are used. The trends of the calculated coercivity as a function of temperature are in reasonable agreement with the observations.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Keywords: PACS: 75.60.Jp; 75.30.Gw
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract.  The iron granular solid, in which ultrafine iron particles are dispersed, has been prepared with both SiO2 and Cu matrices using the sol-gel method. The structure and morphology of these granular solid samples are investigated by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The magnetic properties are measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer with 20 kOe maximum applied field. It is found that the coercivity decreases very slightly with temperature from 80 to 300 K for these Fe–SiO2 and Fe–Cu granular solid samples with different average size of iron particles from 50 to 300 AÅ. The magnetic anisotropy has been obtained from the measured magnetization curves for these granular solid samples using the law of approach to saturation, and the obtained values of the effective magnetic anisotropy are all more than 106 erg/cm3, which are larger than the value of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy for bulk iron. The coercivity vs temperature for these granular solid samples has been calculated using the Kneller and Luborsky theory, in which the magnetic anisotropy values obtained from the law of approach to saturation are used. The trends of the calculated coercivity as a function of temperature are in reasonable agreement with the observations.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Although liming soil to reduce the heavy metal uptake by plants has been recommended generally, there is some disagreement with the practice based on the results of recent studies. Radishes, Raphanus sativa L. var. Paekyong, were grown in greenhouse pots which were filled with soils treated with 1.52 mg kg−1 Cd and 25.37 mg kg−1 Pb, respectively and amended with lime at five rates of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% by dry soil weight. Plants were harvested three times at 25, 50, and 75 days after sowing and the roots and shoots separated. After the plant samples were digested with HNO3-HClO4, Cd was analyzed by flame AAS and Pb by graphite furnace AAS. A large amount of Cd was translocated into the radishes, which accumulated dramatically with time. Compared to Cd, Pb uptake was very low and accumulated slowly. Cd contents were very much higher in the shoots than the roots, but Pb was not significantly different. Liming or increased soil pH decreased Cd uptake markedly with increased lime level; Pb influence was negligible. Yields were decreased with excessive liming, but not by the levels of Cd or Pb added.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Although liming soil to reduce the heavy metal uptake by plants has been recommended generally, there is some disagreement with the practice based on the results of recent studies. Radishes, Raphanus sativa L. var. Paekyong, were grown in greenhouse pots which were filled with soils treated with 1.52 mg kg−1 Cd and 25.37 mg kg−1 Pb, respectively and amended with lime at five rates of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% by dry soil weight. Plants were harvested three times at 25, 50, and 75 days after sowing and the roots and shoots separated. After the plant samples were digested with HNO3-HClO4, Cd was analyzed by flame AAS and Pb by graphite furnace AAS. A large amount of Cd was translocated into the radishes, which accumulated dramatically with time. Compared to Cd, Pb uptake was very low and accumulated slowly. Cd contents were very much higher in the shoots than the roots, but Pb was not significantly different. Liming or increased soil pH decreased Cd uptake markedly with increased lime level; Pb influence was negligible. Yields were decreased with excessive liming, but not by the levels of Cd or Pb added.
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