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  • 1
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Lymphoma ; brain tumours ; medullary tumours ; radiation therapy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A retrospective analysis of 23 non-immune compromised patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is reported. The patients consist of 14 males and 9 females and the median age is 50 years. Most patients presented with focal neurological deficits or symptoms of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) due to mass effects around the periventricular area. However, there were four cases of diffuse type, one case of intramedullary tumour, and four cases with rapid disease progression. All the patients underwent histological confirmation by craniotomy (16 cases) or stereotactic biopsy (7 cases). The radiation therapy started after histological diagnosis in all and 6 cases received additional chemotherapy. The median survival after diagnosis of overall patients was 23 months. Six patients are in disease free status at a mean of 35 months follow-up. The uni- and multi-variative risk analysis revealed five favourable factors on survival: (1) age less than 60 years (0.05 〈 p 〈 0.1); (2) pre-operative Karnof-sky performance scale (KPS) ≥ 70 (p 〈 0.05); (3) symptom duration over four weeks (p 〈 0.05); (4) radiation dosage ≥ 5500 cGy (p 〈 0.05); (5) absence of malignant cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (p 〈 0.05). The most frequent site of recurrence was the local area as shown in seven cases out of 11 recurrent cases. But six patients had diffuse recurrence (4 cases), systemic recurrence (2 cases), and drop metastasis (1 case). Although the recurred PCNSL had rapid progression and a grave prognosis, aggressive treatment prolonged the postrecurrence survival time significantly. Our experience suggests that 1) there are various clinical and radiological presentations and progressions of the disease; 2) treatment method should be decided along with the clinical presentation, progression of disease, and prognostic factors; 3) early diagnosis and early detection of recurrence enable the start of definitive treatment when the medical condition is still satisfactory.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Fine equiaxed γ-CoxFe2−xO3 (x=0, 0.06) particles with a diameter ranging from 200 to 1000 A(ring) were prepared by chemical precipitation. The average crystallite sizes were determined from x-ray line broadening measurements. The saturation magnetization and magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the particles were determined by using the approach to saturation. An empirical linear dependence of the specific saturation magnetization σs on the specific surface area Sa of the fine crystallites was obtained in the form of σs(S)=σs(∞)(1−ASa). The slope A which reflects the surface spin canting anomaly is different for γ-Fe2O3 and γ-Co0.06Fe1.94O3 particles. Under the supposition of the fine crystallite consisting of two parts, i.e., the surface layer, whose magnetic moment cannot be turned entirely along the direction of the applied field, but makes an average canting angle with the field, and the inner part, whose magnetic moment can be aligned along the direction of the applied field, the above formula can be interpreted well. The different slope A for γ-Fe2O3 and γ-Co0.06Fe1.94O3 particles may be caused by the different anisotropies of the two series particles.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 76 (1994), S. 5845-5848 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Mn- and Co-doped acicular γ-Fe2O3 particles with a coercivity of 923 Oe and Co content of 3.5 wt % have been prepared by a special process. This involves high-temperature ion diffusion, then step annealing. These particles exhibit a high magnetic thermal stability and low-temperature coefficient of coercivity. The latter demonstrates a striking contrast to the ordinary cobalt-body-doped γ-Fe2O3 particles. The induced uniaxial anisotropy constant Ku and the magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant K1 of the particles were determined by torque measurements. The novel properties of these particles are mainly due to the high uniaxial anisotropy, resulting from the anisotropic arrangements of cobalt ions. With the above characteristics and low Co content, these acicular particles can be one of the promising candidates for particulate high-density magnetic recording materials.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0006-291X
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0304-8853
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0304-8853
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Key words Pineal region tumor ; Germ cell tumor ; Pineoblastoma ; Pineocytoma ; Incidence ; Outcome
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The authors retrospectively reviewed 48 patients treated at Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) between 1986 and 1995. There were 35 children and 13 adults, accounting for 10.1% of 345 pediatric and 0.68% of 1914 adult brain tumors in SNUH during the same period. The 48 cases consisted of 33 cases of germ cell tumor (69%, GCT); 6 of pineoblastoma (PB, 12.5%); 3 of pineocytoma (PC, 6.3%); 3 of anaplastic astrocytoma (6.3%); 1 of astrocytoma; 1 of glioblastoma; and 1 of ependymoma. The median age was 13 years (range 1–59) and the male-to-female ratio was 3.36:1. The most frequent presenting symptom was due to increased intracranial pressure (90%), followed by Parinaud syndrome or diplopia (50%). Patients with a benign tumor, such as teratoma (TE), astrocytoma, or ependymoma, underwent surgery by the occipital transtentorial approach (OTT) for attempted radical resection without adjuvant therapy, while patients with immature teratoma (imTE), PC, and anaplastic astrocytoma underwent regional radiotherapy (RT) after debulking via OTT. Seven patients with nongerminomatous malignant GCT (NG-MGCT) and 3 with germinoma (GE) underwent craniospinal radiation only, 6 with GE, a NG-MGCT, and 2 with GE+TE received craniospinal radiotherapy (CSRT) after debulking via OTT. Three patients with GE, 4 with NG-MGCT, and 3 with PB underwent radiochemotherapy after debulking via OTT. Forty-four patients were followed up after treatment. The median follow-up period was 36 months. All patients with GE were alive after RT at 36 months (median) of follow-up (range 7–70 months). All with GE+TE and TE were alive. Three patients with PC or astrocytoma were also alive with stable or no evidence of disease. In 1 of the 3 cases of imTE there was a recurrence. However, 4 patients with NG-MGCT died, all of whom had undergone CSRT only; 2 PB patients were alive (12, 19 months), 1 in a moribund status (36 months), and 2 were dead (6, 60 months). The overall mean survival time with pineal tumors was 66 months and the 3-year survival rate was 84% with minimal posttreatment complications. It is concluded that pineal region tumors have male and childhood predominances, and the most common tumor is GCT. The majority of pineal region tumors are malignant. Pineal region tumors can be approached safely and effectively and the surgical complications are mostly transient. Their prognosis is dependent on the pathologies and treatment modalities.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Brain ; Infection ; Computed tomography ; Parasites ; Inflammation ; Sparganosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Cerebral sparganosis is a rare parasitic CNS disease, producing chronic active granulomatous inflammation. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data, CT scans and histopathologic specimens in 34 patients with cerebral sparganosis. The majority of the patients (89%) were rural inhabitants; 75% had a history of ingestion of frogs and/or snakes. The major presenting symptoms were seizure (84%), hemiparesis (59%) and headache (56%) of chronic course. On CT scans, the disease most frequently involved the cerebral hemispheres, particularly frontoparietal lobes, with occasional extension to the external and internal capsules and basal ganglia. The cerebellum was rarely involved. Bilateral involvement was seen in 26%. The main CT findings consisted of white matter hypodensity with adjacent ventricular dilatation (88%), irregular or nodular enhancing lesion (88%), and small punctate calcifications (76%). In combination, the CT triad above appears to be specific for this disease, and was noted in 62% of cases. Of 16 follow-up CT scans, 5 (38%) showed a change in the location of the enhancing nodule. With a single CT scan, it does not appear to be possible to determine whether the worm is alive or dead, information important for deciding whether to intervene surgically. Change in the location of the enhancing nodule and/or worsening of the other CT findings on sequential CT scans would suggest that the worm is alive and that the patient is a candidate for surgery.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Subependymoma ; Ventricular tumor ; Septum pellucidum ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Subependymoma is a rare, benign intraventricular tumour and a case of septum pellucidum origin examined with CT and MR is reported. Well demarcated non-enhancing mass with multiple small intratumoral cysts is demonstrated on CT and MR images. The differential diagnosis from ependymoma has some therapeutic implications but may not be possible by CT or MRI.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Histochemical ; Delineation ; Infarcted ; Brain
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Tetrazolium salts, histochemical indicators of mitochondrial respiratory enzymes, have been used by some pathologists to detect infarcts in myocardium. We explored the utility of this technique in detecting experimental brain infarcts and report our findings. Infarcts were produced in cats, gerbils, and rats by unilateral temporal and permanent cerebral vessel occlusion. After various time periods the animals were killed, and their brains were reacted with 2,3,5, triphenyl, 2H-tetrazolium chloride (TTC). The experimental and contralateral hemispheres were examined by light and electron microscopy. The TTC-stained tissue was correlated with histology. In some situations the histological condition of the tissue correlated well with the TTC staining results. Brain regions supplied by temporarily occluded vessels and judged infarcted by light and electron microscopy did not stain. In these regions less than 6% of the mitochondria were intact. In brain tissue from animals with permanent vessel occlusion (no reflow) mitochondria were intact despite the fact that other cellular organelles, such as nuclei, were destroyed. TTC stained such mitochondria and as a result could not distinguish infarcted brain in complete ischemia situations (no reflow). Another draw back to this staining procedure was 36 h after infarction macrophages with intact mitochondria would replace damage neurons and be stained. Under ideal conditions though this technique can detect irreversibly damaged brain as early as 2.5 h after artery occlusion.
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