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  • 1
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    Virology 487 (), 296-301 
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  • 2
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    Virology 485 (), 199-204 
    Keywords: INFECTION ; BINDING ; STRUCTURAL BASIS ; TRANSMISSION ; BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS ; viruses ; GASTROENTERITIS ; FROZEN RASPBERRIES ; OYSTERS ; STRAWBERRIES
    Abstract: Human norovirus is a dominant cause of acute gastroenteritis around the world. Several norovirus disinfectants label citric acid as an active ingredient. In this study, we showed that norovirus virus-like particles (VLPs) treated with citrate buffer caused the particles to alter their morphology, including increased diameters associated with a new ring-like structure. We also found that epitopes on the protruding (P) domain on these particles were more readily accessible to antibodies after the citrate treatment. These results suggested that citrate had a direct effect on the norovirus particles. Using X-ray crystallography, we showed that the P domain bound citrate from lemon juice and a disinfectant containing citric acid. Importantly, citrate binds at the histo-blood group antigen binding pocket, which are attachment factors for norovirus infections. Taken together, these new findings suggested that it might be possible to treat/reduce norovirus infections with citrate, although further studies are needed.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26295280
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  • 3
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  • 4
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  • 5
    Abstract: Histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are important binding factors for norovirus infections. We show that two human milk oligosaccharides, 2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL) and 3-fucosyllactose (3FL), could block norovirus from binding to surrogate HBGA samples. We found that 2'FL and 3FL bound at the equivalent HBGA pockets on the norovirus capsid using X-ray crystallography. Our data revealed that 2'FL and 3FL structurally mimic HBGAs. These results suggest that 2'FL and 3FL might act as naturally occurring decoys in humans.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26889023
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  • 6
    Abstract: Typically, human noroviruses cause symptoms of acute gastroenteritis for 2 to 4 days. Often, the virions are shed in stool for several days after the symptoms recede, which in turn can lead to further contamination and transmission. Moreover, a number of reports have considered that chronic norovirus infections, i.e., lasting months and years, might even function as reservoirs for the generation of novel strains that can escape the herd immunity or have modified binding interactions with histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs). In this study, we analyzed noroviruses isolated from a patient who has presented a chronic infection for more than 6 years. We found that the isolated capsid sequences clustered into two main genetic types (termed A and B), despite a plethora of capsid quasi-sequences. Furthermore, the two genetic types corresponded well with distinct antigenicities. On the other hand, we showed that numerous amino acid substitutions on the capsid surface of genetic types A and B did not alter the HBGA binding profiles. However, divergent binding profiles for types A and B were observed with human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), which structurally mimic HBGAs and may act as natural antivirals. Importantly, the isolated capsid sequences only had approximately 90% amino acid identity with other known sequences, which suggested that transmission of these chronic noroviruses could be limited. IMPORTANCE The norovirus genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) variants have approximately 5% divergence in capsid amino acid identity and have dominated over the past decade. The precise reason(s) for the GII.4 emergence and persistence in the human population is still unknown, but some studies have suggested that chronically infected patients might generate novel variants that can cause new epidemics. We examined GII.4 noroviruses isolated from an immunocompromised patient with a long-term infection. Numerous norovirus capsid quasi-species were isolated during the 13-month study. The capsid quasi-species clustered into two genetic and antigenic types. However, the HBGA binding profiles were similar between the two antigenic clusters, indicating that the amino acid substitutions did not alter the HBGA binding interactions. The isolated sequences represented two new GII.4 variants, but similar sequences were not found in the database. These results indicated that chronically infected patients might not generate novel noroviruses that cause outbreaks.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28405629
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  • 7
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; RISK ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY LOCUS ; VARIANTS ; IDENTIFICATION ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; PROGESTERONE ; GENOTYPE IMPUTATION ; GRANULOSA-CELL TUMOR
    Abstract: Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a member of the Caliciviridae family (Lagovirus genus). RHDV is highly contagious and attaches to epithelial cells in the digestive or respiratory tract, leading to massive lesions with high mortality rates. A new variant of RHDV (termed RHDVb) recently has emerged, and previously vaccinated rabbits appear to have little protection against this new strain. Similar to human norovirus (Caliciviridae, Norovirus genus), RHDV binds histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), and this is thought to be important for infection. Here, we report the HBGA binding site on the RHDVb capsid-protruding domain (P domain) using X-ray crystallography. The HBGA binding pocket was located in a negatively charged patch on the side of the P domain and at a dimeric interface. Residues from both monomers contributed to the HBGA binding and involved a network of direct hydrogen bonds and water-mediated interactions. An amino acid sequence alignment of different RHDV strains indicated that the residues directly interacting with the ABH-fucose of the HBGAs (Asp472, Asn474, and Ser479) were highly conserved. This result suggested that different RHDV strains also could bind HBGAs at the equivalent pocket. Moreover, several HBGA binding characteristics between RHDVb and human genogroup II norovirus were similar, which indicated a possible convergent evolution of HBGA binding interactions. Further structural studies with other RHDV strains are needed in order to better understand the HBGA binding mechanisms among the diverse RHDV strains. IMPORTANCE: We identified, for the first time, the HBGA binding site on an RHDVb P domain using X-ray crystallography. Our results showed that RHDVb and human genogroup II noroviruses had similar HBGA binding interactions. Recently, it was discovered that synthetic HBGAs or HBGA-expressing enteric bacteria could enhance human genogroup II norovirus infection in B cells. Considering that RHDVb and genogroup II norovirus similarly interacted with HBGAs, it may be possible that a comparable cell culture system also could work with RHDVb. Taken together, these new findings will extend our understanding of calicivirus HBGA interactions and may help to elucidate the specific roles of HBGAs in calicivirus infections.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25505081
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  • 8
    Keywords: MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODY ; INFECTION ; virus ; CRYSTAL-STRUCTURE ; ELISA ; GASTROENTERITIS ; SINGLE-DOMAIN ANTIBODIES ; GENOGROUP-II ; GII.4 NOROVIRUS ; SAPOVIRUS
    Abstract: Human noroviruses are icosahedral single-stranded RNA viruses. The capsid protein is divided into shell (S) and protruding (P) domains, which are connected by a flexible hinge region. There are numerous genetically and antigenically distinct noroviruses, and the dominant strains evolve every other year. Vaccine and antiviral development is hampered by the difficulties in growing human norovirus in cell culture and the continually evolving strains. Here, we show the X-ray crystal structures of human norovirus P domains in complex with two different nanobodies. One nanobody, Nano-85, was broadly reactive, while the other, Nano-25, was strain specific. We showed that both nanobodies bound to the lower region on the P domain and had nanomolar affinities. The Nano-85 binding site mainly comprised highly conserved amino acids among the genetically distinct genogroup II noroviruses. Several of the conserved residues also were recognized by a broadly reactive monoclonal antibody, which suggested this region contained a dominant epitope. Superposition of the P domain nanobody complex structures into a cryoelectron microscopy particle structure revealed that both nanobodies bound at occluded sites on the particles. The flexible hinge region, which contained similar to 10 to 12 amino acids, likely permitted a certain degree of P domain movement on the particles in order to accommodate the nanobodies. Interestingly, the Nano-85 binding interaction with intact particles caused the particles to disassemble in vitro. Altogether, these results suggested that the highly conserved Nano-85 binding epitope contained a trigger mechanism for particle disassembly. Principally, this epitope represents a potential site of norovirus vulnerability. IMPORTANCE We characterized two different nanobodies (Nano-85 and Nano-25) that bind to human noroviruses. Both nanobodies bound with high affinities to the lower region of the P domain, which was occluded on intact particles. Nano-25 was specific for GII. 10, whereas Nano-85 bound several different GII genotypes, including GII. 4, GII. 10, and GII. 12. Weshowed that Nano-85 was able to detect norovirus virions in clinical stool specimens using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Importantly, we found that Nano-85 binding to intact particles caused the particles to disassemble. W ebelieve that with further testing, Nano-85 not only will work as a diagnostic reagent in norovirus detection systems but also could function as a broadly reactive GII norovirus antiviral.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25520510
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  • 9
    Keywords: INFECTION ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; RECOGNITION ; PATTERNS ; RECEPTORS ; STRUCTURAL BASIS ; EPOCHAL EVOLUTION ; NORWALK VIRUS ; BINDING SPECIFICITY ; P2 DOMAIN
    Abstract: Human noroviruses are the dominant cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis around the world. Human noroviruses interact with the polymorphic human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), and this interaction is thought to be important for infection. Indeed, synthetic HBGAs or HBGA-expressing enteric bacteria were shown to enhance norovirus infection in B cells. A number of studies have found a possible relationship between HBGA type and norovirus susceptibility. The genogroup II, genotype 4 (GII.4) noroviruses are the dominant cluster, evolve every other year, and are thought to modify their binding interactions with different HBGA types. Here we show high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of the capsid protruding (P) domains from epidemic GII.4 variants from 2004, 2006, and 2012, cocrystallized with a panel of HBGA types (H type 2, Lewis Y, Lewis B, Lewis A, Lewis X, A type, and B type). Many of the HBGA binding interactions were found to be complex, involving capsid loop movements, alternative HBGA conformations, and HBGA rotations. We showed that a loop (residues 391 to 395) was elegantly repositioned to allow for Lewis Y binding. This loop was also slightly shifted to provide direct hydrogen- and water-mediated bonds with Lewis B. We considered that the flexible loop modulated Lewis HBGA binding. The GII.4 noroviruses have dominated outbreaks over the past decade, which may be explained by their exquisite HBGA binding mechanisms, their fondness for Lewis HBGAs, and their temporal amino acid modifications. IMPORTANCE: Our data provide a comprehensive picture of GII.4 P domain and HBGA binding interactions. The exceptionally high resolutions of our X-ray crystal structures allowed us to accurately recognize novel GII.4 P domain interactions with numerous HBGA types. We showed that the GII.4 P domain-HBGA interactions involved complex binding mechanisms that were not previously observed in norovirus structural studies. Many of the GII.4 P domain-HBGA interactions we identified were negative in earlier enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based studies. Altogether, our data show that the GII.4 norovirus P domains can accommodate numerous HBGA types.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25428879
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  • 10
    Keywords: COMPLEX ; STRUCTURAL BASIS ; BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS ; NORWALK VIRUS ; MACROMOLECULAR CRYSTALLOGRAPHY
    Abstract: Human noroviruses bind histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) and this interaction is thought to be important for an infection. We identified two additional fucose-binding pockets (termed fucose-3/4 sites) on a genogroup II human (GII.10) norovirus-protruding (P) dimer using X-ray crystallography. Fucose-3/4 sites were located between two previously determined HBGA binding pockets (termed fucose-1/2 sites). We found that four fucose molecules were capable of binding altogether at fucose-1/2/3/4 sites on the P dimer, though the fucose molecules bound in a dose-dependent and step-wise manner. We also showed that HBGA B-trisaccharide molecules bound in a similar way at the fucose-1/2 sites. Interestingly, we discovered that the monomers of the P dimer were asymmetrical in an unliganded state and when a single B-trisaccharide molecule bound, but were symmetrical when two B-trisaccharide molecules bound. We postulate that the symmetrical dimers might favor HBGA binding interactions at fucose-1/2 sites.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25980740
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