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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2218
    Keywords: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy ; Transplant recipients ; Registry ; Conversion rate ; Acute cholecystitis ; Immunosuppression
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: The results of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a group of transplant recipients were reviewed to determine the safety and efficacy of the procedure in the setting of immunosuppression. Methods: All solid-organ-transplant recipients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy over a 3-year period were reviewed. Indication for operation, conversion to open procedure, length of stay, and complications were characterized. These results were compared to the registry data of all laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed at the same institution. Results: There were 26 transplant patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy including renal, heart, double lung, and heart-lung recipients. The mean age was 47 years. Symptomatic cholelithiasis was the most common indication in 73% of patients followed by acute cholecystitis in 11%. Seven patients (27%) underwent conversion to an open procedure. Three patients (11.5%) experienced a minor complication in hospital. Median length of stay was 2.5 days. One patient died during a subsequent unrelated operation. These results compared favorably to the registry experience at the same institution where the mean age was 49 years, 24% of cases were performed for acute cholecystitis, there was a 10% complication rate, median length of stay was 2 days, and 3 deaths occurred in hospital. The only statistically significant difference was a lower conversion rate (11% vs 27%) in the registry vs transplant group. Conclusions: This experience confirms that laparoscopic cholecystectomy is as safe in the transplant population as the general population. Despite a slightly higher conversion rate to an open procedure, the advantages of short hospital stay, low morbidity, and early return to preoperative routines remain equivalent.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford [u.a.] : International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
    Acta crystallographica 51 (1995), S. 2218-2220 
    ISSN: 1600-5759
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford [u.a.] : International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
    Acta crystallographica 51 (1995), S. 1241-1243 
    ISSN: 1600-5759
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2218
    Keywords: Key words: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy — Transplant recipients — Registry — Conversion rate — Acute cholecystitis — Immunosuppression
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: The results of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a group of transplant recipients were reviewed to determine the safety and efficacy of the procedure in the setting of immunosuppression. Methods: All solid-organ-transplant recipients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy over a 3-year period were reviewed. Indication for operation, conversion to open procedure, length of stay, and complications were characterized. These results were compared to the registry data of all laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed at the same institution. Results: There were 26 transplant patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy including renal, heart, double lung, and heart-lung recipients. The mean age was 47 years. Symptomatic cholelithiasis was the most common indication in 73% of patients followed by acute cholecystitis in 11%. Seven patients (27%) underwent conversion to an open procedure. Three patients (11.5%) experienced a minor complication in hospital. Median length of stay was 2.5 days. One patient died during a subsequent unrelated operation. These results compared favorably to the registry experience at the same institution where the mean age was 49 years, 24% of cases were performed for acute cholecystitis, there was a 10% complication rate, median length of stay was 2 days, and 3 deaths occurred in hospital. The only statistically significant difference was a lower conversion rate (11% vs 27%) in the registry vs transplant group. Conclusions: This experience confirms that laparoscopic cholecystectomy is as safe in the transplant population as the general population. Despite a slightly higher conversion rate to an open procedure, the advantages of short hospital stay, low morbidity, and early return to preoperative routines remain equivalent.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Syntheses and Crystal Structures of the Phases 6R—CuxM1+yS2 (M = Nb, Ta)Thermal decomposition of 2H—Cu0.66MS2 (M = Nb, Ta) results in the formation of 6R—CuxM1+yS2. Crystals can be obtained by chemical vapour transport reactions with iodine in a temperature gradient (1320-1220 K).The structures of four phases with trigonal symmetry (R3m, Z = 6) were determined from single crystal x-ray diffraction data. Nb and Ta, resp., of the MS2 partial structures have a trigonal prismatic coordination. The additional metal atoms are distributed at random only in S-octahedra (Nb, Ta) and -tetrahedra Cu sharing faces with MS6-prisms. The sequence of the layers can be rationalized on the assumption of stabilizing interactions between metal atoms in adjacent layers.
    Notes: Die Phasen 6R—CuxM1+yS2 (M = Nb, Ta) entstehen beim thermischen Abbau von 2H—Cu0,66MS2. Kristalle lassen sich durch chemischen Transport mit Iod im Temperaturgefälle (1320-1220 K) züchten.Die Strukturen vier trigonal kristallisierender Phasen (R3m, Z = 6) wurden über Röntgenbeugungsexperimente an Einkristallen bestimmt. In der schichtenartigen Anordnung sind Nb bzw. Ta der MS2-Teilstruktur trigonal-prismatisch, die weiteren Metallatome trigonal-antiprismatisch (Nb, Ta) bzw. verzerrt tetraedrisch (Cu) von S umgeben. Nur solche S-Oktaeder und Tetraeder sind statistisch von M oder Cu besetzt, die mit MS6-Prismen flächenverknüpft sind. Die Schichtenabfolge läßt sich mit der Annahme stabilisierender Wechselwirkungen zwischen Metallatomen benachbarter Schichten erklären.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Sodium tetraoxo nitrido tungstate(VI) ; synthesis ; crystal structure ; Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Synthesis and Crystal Structure of Sodium Tetraoxo Nitrido Tungstate(VI), Na5WO4NColourless crystals of Na5WO4N are obtained besides Na4WO2N2 [1] by the reaction of WO3 with NaNH2 (15:1) at 350°C ≥ T ≥ 750°C in autoclaves to prevent early decomposition of sodium amide. X-ray single crystal investigations are characterized by the following data:Na5WO4N: Cmc21 (No. 36), Z = 4a = 9.873(2) Å, b = 5.769(1) Å, c = 10.648(2) ÅZ(F2o)≥ 3σ(F2o) = 2182, Z(Var.) = 55, R/Rw = 0.029/0.039The structure contains the tetragonal pyramidal ion WO4N5- with nitrogen at the apex connected via Na+ ions irregularly coordinated by one nitrogen and four oxygen atoms of different anions.
    Notes: Farblose Kristalle von Na5WO4N entstehen neben Na4WO2N2 [1] bei der Umsetzung von WO3 mit NaNH2 (15:1) bei 350°C ≥ T ≥ 750°C in Autoklaven, die eine frühzeitige Zersetzung von Natriumamid verhindern. Die röntgenographische Strukturbestimmung an Einkristallen ist durch folgende Daten charakterisiert:Na5WO4N: Cmc21 (Nr. 36), Z = 4a = 9,873(2) Å, b = 5,769(1) Å, c = 10,648(2) ÅZ(F2o) ≥ 3σ(F2o) = 2182, Z(Var.) = 55, R/Rw = 0,029/0,039Die Struktur enthält das tetragonal pyramidale Ion WO4N5 mit Stickstoff in apikaler Position. Die Anionen sind durch Na+-Ionen verknüpft, die unregelmäßig von einem N- und vier O-Atomen unterschiedlicher Anionen koordiniert sind.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Tantalum-rich chalcogenides ; selenides ; tellurides ; high temperature synthesis ; crystal structure ; Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Ta5Se1.2Te1.8 - a Tetrahedrally Close-packed Metal-rich Layer StructureTa5Se1.2Te1.8 was prepared by reducing a mixture of TaSe2 and TaTe2 with tantalum at 1540°C. A X-ray single crystal structure analysis was performed. Space group; P1, a = 1008.5(4) pm, b = 1052.1(4) pm, c = 1440,2(5) pm, α = 90.32(2)°, β = 96.42(2)°, γ = 108.28(2), Z = 8, Pearson-Symbol; aP64, 5684 reflexions, 300 variables, RI = 0.066. The structure is built up of hetero-nuclear, distorted icosahedral clusters penetrating mutually into pentagonal anti-prismatic columns. The connection of these units by inter-columnar Ta-Ta- and Ta-Se, Te-contacts affords tetrahedral close-packed layers. The chalcogen atoms are one-sidedly coordinated by three, four or six tantalum atoms.
    Notes: Ta5Se1.2Te1.8 wurde aus einem Gemenge aus TaSe2 und TaTe2 durch Reduktion mit Tantal bei 1540°C dargestellt. Die Struktur wurde aus Röntgenbeugungsintensitäten eines Einkristalls aufgeklärt. Raumgruppe: P1, a = 1008,5(4) pm, b = 1052,1(4) pm, c = 1440,2(5) pm, α = 90,32(2)°, β = 96,42(2)°, γ = 108,28(2), Z = 8, Pearson-Symbol: aP64, 5684 Reflexe, 300 Variablen, RI = 0,066. Die Struktur besteht aus zentrierten, verzerrt ikosaedrischen, heteronuklearen Clustern, die sich zu Strängen durchdringen. Die pentagonal-antiprismatischen Stränge sind untereinander über interkolumnare Ta-Ta- und Ta-Se, Te-Kontakte zu tetraedrisch dicht gepackten Schichten verknüpft. Die Chalkogen-Atome sind stels einseitig drei-, vier-, oder sechsfach von Tantal-Atomen koordiniert.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: High-pressure Synthesis of Cesium Amide Azide, Cs2(NH2)N3 from Cesium Metal and AmmoniaThe reaction of cesium and yttrium metal with ammonia at 5-6 kbar and 190-220°C led to a well crystallized cesium amide azide and to YN. The formation of the cesium compound is discussed by volume effects. X-ray investigations gave the atomic arrangement of the compound. The tetragonal unit cell with a = 8.194(3) and c = 4.450(1) Å contains two formula units. The structure determination was successfull in the space group P4/mbm. The azide ion has different coordination and bond length (1.255 Å) as compared with that in the alkali metal azides (1.17 Å). The amide ions carry out a strong libration.
    Notes: Bei der Umsetzung von Caesium- und Yttriummetall mit Ammoniak bei 5-6 kbar und 190-220°C entstand neben YN ein gut kristallisiertes Caesiumamidazid, Cs2(NH2)N3. Die Bildung dieser Caesiumverbindung wird über Volumeneffekte diskutiert. An Einkristallen wurde röntgenographisch ihre Atomanordnung bestimmt. Die tetragonale Elementarzelle mit a = 8,194(3) und c = 4,450(1) Å enthält zwei Formeleinheiten. Die Strukturbestimmung erfolgte in der Raumgruppe P4/mbm. Das Azidion hat im Cs2(NH2)N3 eine andere N—N-Bindungslänge (1,255 Å statt 1,17 Å) und Koordinationszahl als in den Alkalimetallaziden. Die Amidionen sind nicht lagefixiert.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Potassium Sodium Sulphide, KNaS: A New Inter Alkali Metal SulphideHitherto unknown KNaS has been prepared by annealing a mixture of Na2S and K2S. X-ray single crystal structure determination has been performed. The hygroscopic, colorless compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pnma (Z = 4) with the lattice parameters a = 770.3(1), b = 460.4(1), c = 829.3(1) pm. Refining of the structure lead to a least squares residue of 0.035. KNaS is isostructural to PbCl2. The S2- are hexagonally closest-packed. Sulphur tetrahedra occupied by sodium ions share cis-located edges forming chains interconnected by vertices. The K+ are situated out of the center of octahedral sites diminishing the repulsion of the distinct metal ions. The new description of the PbCl2-type structure is corroborated by group-subgroup analysis.
    Notes: Bislang unbekanntes KNaS wurde durch Tempern eines Gemenges von Na2S und K2S dargestellt. Das farblose, hygroskopische Sulfid kristallisiert in der Raumgruppe Pnma (Z = 4) mit a = 770,3(1) pm, b = 460,4(1) pm und c = 829,3(1) pm. Die Struktur wurde über Röntgenbeugung an Einkristallen bestimmt (R = 0,035). KNaS ist antiisotyp mit PbCl2. Die Anionen S2- bilden eine verzerrt hexagonal dichteste Kugelpackung. NaS4-Tetraeder sind über cisständige Kanten zu Ketten verknüpft, die untereinander über Spitzen verbunden sind. Die K+ befinden sich in den Oktaederlücken und sind zur Verminderung der elektrostatischen Abstoßung von den Na+ aus deren Zentren gerückt. Die Gruppe-Untergruppe-Analyse unterstützt die neuartige Beschreibung der PbCl2-Struktur.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: New Ternary Alkalimetalhydroxides, MLi2(OH)3with M ≙ K, Rb, Cs and a Cesiumdilithiumamide, CsLi2(NH2)3- Structural Relations to the BaNiO3-type and to LiOHThe systems LiOH/MOH with M ≙ K, Rb, Cs have been investigated. Several synthetic routes were chosen. Phase analysis was done by x-ray methods. In addition to the binary hydroxides only one ternary compound was found in each of the corresponding systems. The reaction of Cs and Li metal with NH3 in high-pressure autoclaves leads to CsLi2(NH2)3 and further ternary amides.X-ray structure determinations of the four compounds were performed. The isotypic hydroxides crystallize in the space group P21/m with two formula units in the unit cell. CsLi2(NH2)3shows orthorhombic symmetry (Cmcm, Z = 4) and its structure is closely related to that of the hydroxides. (For lattice parameters see „Inhaltsübersicht“).The atomic arrangements for the hydroxides and for tho amide can be dorived from the BaNiO3-type of structure as well as from that of LiOH. The structural influence of the charge asymmetry of the anions is discussed.
    Notes: Die Systeme LiOH/MOH mit M ≙ K, Rb, Cs wurden untersucht. Zur Darstellung der Präparate wurden mehrere Synthesewege gewählt. Die röntgenographische Phasenanalyse belegt, daß nur ein ternäres Hydroxid, MLi2(OH)3, neben den binären Komponenten erhalten wurde. Durch Umsetzung von Cs- und Li-Metall mit NH3 in Hochdruckautoklaven ließ sich neben weiteren ternären Amiden die Verbindung CsLi2(NH2)3 darstellen.Die röntgenographische Strukturanalyse an den vier Verbindungen wurde durchgeführt. Die Hydroxide kristallisieren isotyp in der monoklinen Raumgruppe P21/m mit zwei Formeleinheiten in der Elementarzelle. CsLi2(NH2)3 weist rhombische Symmetrie auf (Cmcm, Z = 4) und ist strukturell eng mit den Hydroxiden verwandt. Die Gitterkonstanten sind: Texta/Åb/Åc/Åβ/°KLi2(OH)35,802(1)5,097(6)6,112(1)103,23(2)RbLi2(OH)36,032(3)5,184(5)6,211(4)103,70(5)CsLi2(OH)36,519(2)5,271(2)6,401(2)107,02(3)CsLi2(NH2)38,726(4)11,151(3)5,445(1) - Die Atomanordnungen von MLi2(OH)3 bzw. von CsLi2(NH2)3 lassen sich sowohl zum BaNiO3-Typals auch zum LiOH-Typ in Beziehung setzen. Der strukturelle Einfluß der ladungsasymmetrischen Molekülanionen wird diskutiert.
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