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  • 1
    Abstract: Helminth infection is frequently associated with the expansion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and suppression of immune responses to bystander antigens. We show that infection of mice with the chronic gastrointestinal helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus drives rapid polyclonal expansion of Foxp3(+)Helios(+)CD4(+) thymic (t)Tregs in the lamina propria and mesenteric lymph nodes while Foxp3(+)Helios(-)CD4(+) peripheral (p)Treg expand more slowly. Notably, in partially resistant BALB/c mice parasite survival positively correlates with Foxp3(+)Helios(+)CD4(+) tTreg numbers. Boosting of Foxp3(+)Helios(+)CD4(+) tTreg populations by administration of recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2):anti-IL-2 (IL-2C) complex increased worm persistence by diminishing type-2 responsiveness in vivo, including suppression of alternatively activated macrophage and granulomatous responses at the sites of infection. IL-2C also increased innate lymphoid cell (ILC) numbers, indicating that Treg functions dominate over ILC effects in this setting. Surprisingly, complete removal of Tregs in transgenic Foxp3-DTR mice also resulted in increased worm burdens, with "immunological chaos" evident in high levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and interferon-gamma. In contrast, worm clearance could be induced by anti-CD25 antibody-mediated partial depletion of early Treg, alongside increased T helper type 2 responses and without incurring pathology. These findings highlight the overarching importance of the early Treg response to infection and the non-linear association between inflammation and the prevailing Treg frequency.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26286232
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  • 2
    Keywords: IN-VIVO ; CUTTING EDGE ; DENDRITIC CELLS ; ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS ; REGULATORY T-CELLS ; ALTERNATIVELY ACTIVATED MACROPHAGES ; SCHISTOSOMA-MANSONI ; NEMATODE INFECTION ; FILARIAL NEMATODE ; TH2 RESPONSES
    Abstract: Infection with gastrointestinal helminths generates a dominant type 2 response among both adaptive (Th2) and innate (macrophage, eosinophil, and innate lymphoid) immune cell types. Two additional innate cell types, CD11c(high) dendritic cells (DCs) and basophils, have been implicated in the genesis of type 2 immunity. Investigating the type 2 response to intestinal nematode parasites, including Heligmosomoides polygyrus and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, we first confirmed the requirement for DCs in stimulating Th2 adaptive immunity against these helminths through depletion of CD11c(high) cells by administration of diphtheria toxin to CD11c.DOG mice. In contrast, responsiveness was intact in mice depleted of basophils by antibody treatment. Th2 responses can be induced by adoptive transfer of DCs, but not basophils, exposed to soluble excretory-secretory products from these helminths. However, innate type 2 responses arose equally strongly in the presence or absence of CD11c(high) cells or basophils; thus, in CD11c.DOG mice, the alternative activation of macrophages, as measured by expression of arginase-1, RELM-alpha, and Ym-1 (Chi3L3) in the intestine following H. polygyrus infection or in the lung following N. brasiliensis infection, was unaltered by depletion of CD11c-expressing DCs and alveolar macrophages or by antibody-mediated basophil depletion. Similarly, goblet cell-associated RELM-beta in lung and intestinal tissues, lung eosinophilia, and expansion of innate lymphoid ("nuocyte") populations all proceeded irrespective of depletion of CD11c(high) cells or basophils. Thus, while CD11c(high) DCs initiate helminth-specific adaptive immunity, innate type 2 cells are able to mount an autonomous response to the challenge of parasite infection.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22851746
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Mating pheromone ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Signal transduction ; STE5 ; Ste20 protein kinase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The β and γ subunits of the mating response G-protein in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been shown to transmit the mating pheromone signal to downstream components of the pheromone response pathway. A protein kinase homologue encoded by the STE20 gene has recently been identified as a potential G βγ , target. We have searched multicopy plasmid genomic DNA libraries for high gene dosage suppressors of the signal transduction defect of ste20 mutant cells. This screen identified the STE5 gene encoding an essential component of the pheromone signal transduction pathway. We provide genetic evidence for a functional interrelationship between the STE5 gene product and the Ste20 protein kinase. We have sequenced the STE5 gene, which encodes a predicted protein of 917 amino acids and is specifically transcribed in haploid cells. Transcription is slightly induced by treatment of cells with pheromone. Ste5 has homology with Fart, a yeast protein required for efficient mating and the pheromone-inducible inhibition of a G1 cyclin, Cln2. A STE5 multicopy plasmid is able to suppress the signal transduction defect of farl null mutant cells suggesting that Ste5, at elevated levels, is able functionally to replace Fart. The genetically predicted point of function of Ste5 within the pheromone signalling pathway suggests that Stc5 is involved in the regulation of a Gβγ-activated protein kinase cascade which links a G-protein coupled receptor to yeast homologues of mitogen-activated protein kinases.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Cell polarity ; G-protein ; MDG1 gene ; Signal transduction ; Yeast
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The pheromone signal in the yeastSaccharomyces cerevisiae is transmitted by theβ andγ subunits of the mating response G-protein. TheSTE20 gene, encoding a protein kinase required for pheromone signal transduction, has recently been identified in a genetic screen for high-gene-dosage suppressors of a partly defective Gβ mutation. The same genetic screen identifiedBEM1, which encodes an SH3 domain protein required for polarized morphogenesis in response to pheromone, and a novel gene, designatedMDG1 (multicopy suppressor ofdefectiveG-protein). TheMDG1 gene was independently isolated in a search for multicopy suppressors of abem1 mutation. TheMDG1 gene encodes a predicted hydrophilic protein of 364 amino acids with a molecular weight of 41 kDa that has no homology with known proteins. A fusion of Mdg1p with the green fluorescent protein fromAequorea victoria localizes to the plasma membrane, suggesting that Mdg1p is an extrinsically bound membrane protein. Deletion ofMDG1 causes sterility in cells in which the wild-type Gβ has been replaced by partly defective Gβ derivatives but does not cause any other obvious phenotypes. The mating defect of cells deleted forSTE20 is partially suppressed by multiple copies ofBEM1 andCDC42, which encodes a small GTP-binding protein that binds to Ste20p and is necessary for the development of cell polarity. Elevated levels ofSTE20 andBEM1 are capable of suppressing a temperature-sensitive mutation inCDC42. This complex network of genetic interactions points to a role for Bem1p and Mdg1p in G-protein mediated signal transduction and indicates a functional linkage between components of the pheromone signalling pathway and regulators of cell polarity during yeast mating.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words Cell polarity ; G-protein ; MDG1 gene ; Signal transduction ; Yeast
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  The pheromone signal in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is transmitted by the β and γ subunits of the mating response G-protein. The STE20 gene, encoding a protein kinase required for pheromone signal transduction, has recently been identified in a genetic screen for high-gene-dosage suppressors of a partly defective Gβ mutation. The same genetic screen identified BEM1, which encodes an SH3 domain protein required for polarized morphogenesis in response to pheromone, and a novel gene, designated MDG1 (multicopy suppressor of defective G-protein). The MDG1 gene was independently isolated in a search for multicopy suppressors of a bem1 mutation. The MDG1 gene encodes a predicted hydrophilic protein of 364 amino acids with a molecular weight of 41 kDa that has no homology with known proteins. A fusion of Mdg1p with the green fluorescent protein from Aequorea victoria localizes to the plasma membrane, suggesting that Mdg1p is an extrinsically bound membrane protein. Deletion of MDG1 causes sterility in cells in which the wild-type Gβ has been replaced by partly defective Gβ derivatives but does not cause any other obvious phenotypes. The mating defect of cells deleted for STE20 is partially suppressed by multiple copies of BEM1 and CDC42, which encodes a small GTP-binding protein that binds to Ste20p and is necessary for the development of cell polarity. Elevated levels of STE20 and BEM1 are capable of suppressing a temperature-sensitive mutation in CDC42. This complex network of genetic interactions points to a role for Bem1p and Mdg1p in G-protein mediated signal transduction and indicates a functional linkage between components of the pheromone signalling pathway and regulators of cell polarity during yeast mating.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0040-4039
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0009-8981
    Keywords: Fish lipid concentrate ; MaxEPA ; Triglyceride
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Anaesthesia 35 (1980), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2044
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Buprenorphine, a partial opiate-receptor agonist with potent analgesic properties, was given to 7548 patients in the immediate postoperative period. Ninety per cent of patients had good or adequate pain relief for at least 4 hours; there were few adverse effects and the incidence of drug-associated respiratory depression was estimated at less than 1%. There were no other side-effects of clinical note.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Candida albicans strains with a deletion of the mitogen-activated protein kinase CEK1 gene are defective in the yeast to hyphal transition on solid surfaces in vitro. The virulence of a cek1Δ/cek1Δ null mutant strain was compared with its wild-type parent strain (WT) in a novel model of localized candidiasis. The mammary glands of lactating mice (at day 5 postpartum) were infected for 2, 4 and 6 days with 50 μl suspension containing 1×105, 1×106 and 1×107 blastospores before death. Infected and non-infected control glands were evaluated pathologically. All animals infected with cek1Δ/cek1Δ null mutant strains showed no lesions while 65% of animals infected with the WT strain had severe lesions characterized by widespread heterophilic infiltration, necrosis, and abscess formation. As an additional control, animals infected with the disrupted strain complemented with the WT CEK1, on a replicating plasmid, also showed severe pathological changes similar to the WT strain. These results clearly demonstrate that the CEK1 gene codes for a virulence determinant of C. albicans and that the mouse mastitis model is well suited for the discriminative study of the pathogenicity of different C. albicans strains.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The pathogenic fungus Candida albicans is capable of responding to a wide variety of environmental cues with a morphological transition from a budding yeast to a polarized filamentous form. We demonstrate that the Ras homologue of C. albicans, CaRas1p, is required for this morphological transition and thereby contributes to the development of pathogenicity. However, CaRas1p is not required for cellular viability. Deletion of both alleles of the CaRAS1 gene caused in vitro defects in morphological transition that were reversed by either supplementing the growth media with cAMP or overexpressing components of the filament-inducing mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade. The induction of filament-specific secreted aspartyl proteinases encoded by the SAP4–6 genes was blocked in the mutant cells. The defects in filament formation were also observed in situ after phagocytosis of C. albicans cells in a macrophage cell culture assay and, in vivo, after infection of kidneys in a mouse model for systemic candidiasis. In the macrophage assay, the mutant cells were less resistant to phagocytosis. Moreover, the defects in filament formation were associated with reduced virulence in the mouse model. These results indicate that, in response to environmental cues, CaRas1p is required for the regulation of both a MAP kinase signalling pathway and a cAMP signalling pathway. CaRas1p-dependent activation of these pathways contributes to the pathogenicity of C. albicans cells through the induction of polarized morphogenesis. These findings elucidate a new medically relevant role for Ras in cellular morphogenesis and virulence in an important human infectious disease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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