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  • 1
    ISSN: 0309-1651
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Basal body ; Cytoskeleton ; Microtubule ; Immunoflu orescence ; Monoclonal antibodies ; Pteridium ; Spermatozoid
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Detergent extracted spermatozoids of the fernPteridium aquilinum were used as mixed antigen preparations for raising monoclonal antibodies in order to obtain reagents for detecting as yet uncharacterized components of the plant cytoskeleton. Selected antibodies were studied by immunofluorescence microscopy of developing spermatids and mature spermatozoids. Some reacted directly with fixed cells, others required permeabilization treatments with cold methanol or Triton X-100. AntibodiesPas2D9 andPas6D7 bind to glycoprotein antigenic determinants that are exposed on the surface of the plasma membrane. Several antibodies interact with cytoskeletal components.Pas1D3,Pas5D8 andPas5F4 bind to the cytoskeleton of permeabilized cells including the flagella. Three react specifically with the flagellar band or associated components:Pas2G6 reacts with the whole flagellar band but shows a prominent binding to basal bodies,Pas5E2 binds exclusively to basal bodies, andPas5E7 detects mitochondria associated with the flagellar band. Cross-reactions to wheat root tip cells at different stages of the cell cycle are described inMarc andGunning (1988).
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Flagellar surface components ; Mastigonemes ; Oomycete ; Phytophthora cinnamomi ; Monoclonal antibodies ; Immunofluorescence microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Cryomicrotomy and immunofluorescence microscopy employing three different categories of monoclonal antibody (MAb) that label antigens on the surface of one or both flagella ofPhytophthora dnnamomi have been used to follow the synthesis and assembly of flagellar surface components. MAb Zf 1 binds to the surface of both the anterior tinsel and posterior whiplash flagella, as well as to a nuclear component. The labeling of the flagella is punctate in nature, is brighter at the flagellar base, and does not always extend to the distal tip of the flagella. MAbs in the Zt group recognise an antigen that is located along the sides of the tinsel flagellum and may be associated with the base of the mastigonemes. Immunodot-blot analysis has shown that binding of Zt MAbs is abolished by pretreatment with either pronase or periodate oxidation indicating that the antigen is a glycoprotein. MAbs in the Zg group bind to the mastigonemes on the tinsel flagellum and to packets of mastigonemes in the cytoplasm of zoospores. Zt and Zg antigens increase in abundance during zoosporogenesis and are present throughout the life cycle of the fungus, whereas the non-nuclear localisation of the Zf antigen appears only during sporulation. Prior to association with the flagellar surface, all three components become clustered in the groove region of zoospores. They do not become associated with the flagellar surface until at least 15 min after the flagellar axoneme has formed.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Mastigonemes ; Monoclonal antibodies ; Flagellar appendages ; Heterokont flagellates ; Zoospore swimming behaviour
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The role of tubular mastigonemes in the reversal of thrust of the anterior flagellum ofPhytophthora cinnamomi was analysed using mastigoneme-specific monoclonal antibodies and immunoflu-orescence and video microscopy. Exposure of live zoospores ofP. cinnamomi to the mastigoneme-specific Zg antibodies caused alterations in the arrangement of mastigonemes on the flagellar surface and at Zg concentrations above 0.3 μ/ml, mastigonemes became detached from the flagellum. As a consequence of antibody binding to the mastigonemes there were concentration-dependent perturbations in zoospore swimming behaviour and anterior flagellum beat pattern. With increasing antibody concentration zoospores swam more slowly and other parameters of their swimming pattern, such as the wavelength of the swimming helix and the frequency of rotation, were also reduced. The effects of Zg antibodies were specific at two levels: control immunoglobulins or antibodies that bound to other flagellar surface components did not have an effect on motility, and Zg antibodies did not interfere with the motility of zoospores of oomycete species to which they did not bind. The effects of antibody-induced disruption of mastigoneme arrangement strongly support previous hypotheses that tubular mastigonemes are responsible for thrust reversal by the anterior flagellum, enabling it to pull the cell through the surrounding medium.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Immunolabelling ; Phytophthora nicotianae ; Plasma membrane H+-ATPase ; Vacuolar H+-ATPase ; Water expulsion vacuole ; Zoospores
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The water expulsion vacuole (WEV) in zoospores ofPhytophthora nicotianae and other members of the Oomycetes is believed to function in cell osmoregulation. We have used videomicroscopy to analyse the behaviour of the WEV during zoospore development, motility and encystment inP. nicotianae. After cleavage of multinucleate sporangia, the WEV begins to pulse slowly but soon attains a rate similar to that seen in motile zoospores. In zoospores, the WEV has a mean cycle time of 5.7 ± 0.71 s. The WEV continues to pulse at this rate until approximately 4 min after the onset of encystment. At this stage, pulsing slows progressively until it becomes undetectable. The commencement of WEV operation in sporangia coincides with the reduction of zoospore volume prior to release from the sporangium. Disappearance of the WEV during encystment occurs as formation of a cell wall allows the generation of turgor pressure in the cyst. As in other organisms, the WEV inP. nicotianae zoospores consists of a central bladder surrounded by a vesicular and tubular spongiome. Immunolabelling with a monoclonal antibody directed towards vacuolar H+-ATPase reveals that this enzyme is confined to membranes of the spongiome and is absent from the bladder membrane or zoospore plasma membrane. An antibody directed towards plasma membrane H+-ATPase shows the presence of this ATPase in both the bladder membrane and the plasma membrane over the cell body but not the flagella. Analysis of ATPase activity in microsomal fractions fromP. nicotianae zoospores has provided information on the biochemical properties of the ATPases in these cells and has shown that they are similar to those in true fungi. Inhibition of the vacuolar H+-ATPase by potassium nitrate causes a reduction in the pulse rate of the WEV in zoospores and leads to premature encystment. These results give support to the idea that the vacuolar H+-ATPase plays an important role in water accumulation by the spongiome in oomycete zoospores, as it does in other protists.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Colchicine ; Caffeine ; Redifferentiation ; Vascular elements ; Wall formation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Interference with the normal progression of the cell cycle by the drugs caffeine and colchicine does not prevent parenchyma cells in the cortex of pea roots from being reprogrammed to become tracheary and sieve elements following severance of the vascular cylinder of the root. The pattern of secondary wall deposition of the newly differentiated tracheary elements is highly aberrant in the presence of colchicine but is of normal appearance in the caffeinetreated roots. In each case, the new sieve elements have sieve plates and lateral sieve areas with callose deposits. Induction and redifferentiation are achieved in the absence of cell division and microtubules in colchicine-treated roots. Bi- and multi-nucleate cells are produced by both drugs. Microtubules are still present in the caffeine-treated roots but cell plate formation is inhibited. The partitioning of the multinucleate cortical cells by the interdigitation of “free-growing” walls between the nuclei occurs in the presence of caffeine but not colchicine.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Cell surface ; Flagellar apparatus ; Fungal zoospores ; Immunofluorescence ; Microtubules ; Phytophthora cinnamomi
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A correlated immunofluorescence and ultrastructural study of the microtubular cytoskeleton has been made in zoospores and young cysts ofPhytophthora cinnamomi. Labelling of microtubules using antibodies directed towards tubulin has revealed new details of the arrangement of the flagellar rootlets in these cells, and of the variability that occurs from cell to cell. Most of the variation exists at the distal ends of the rootlets, and may be correlated with differences in cell shape in these regions. The rootlets have the same right and left configuration in all zoospores. The arrangement of the rootlet microtubules at the anterior end of the zoospores raises the possibility that the microtubules on the left hand side of the groove may not comprise an independent rootlet which arises at the basal bodies. The absolute configuration of the flagellar apparatus has been determined from ultrastructural observations of serial sections. In the vicinity of the basal bodies, there is little, if any, variation between individuals, and the structure of the flagellar apparatus is similar to that described for related species of fungi. Two ribbon-like coils surround the central pair of microtubules at the distal tip of the whiplash flagellum, and clusters of intramembranous particles, similar to ciliary plaques, have been found at the bases of both flagella. There are two arrays of microtubules associated with the nucleus in the zoospores. One array lies next to the outer surface of the nuclear envelope, and probably functions in the shaping and positioning of the apex of the nucleus. The nuclear pores in this region are aligned in rows alongside these microtubules. The second array is formed by kinetochore microtubules which extend into a collar-like arrangement of chromatin material around the narrow end of the (interphase) nucleus. During encystment, all flagellar rootlets are internalized when the flagella are detached at the terminal plate. The rootlets arrays are no longer recognizable 5–10 minutes after the commencement of encystment.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Adhesion ; Calcium ; Lectins ; Phytophthora cinnamomi ; Secretion ; Zoospore
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary During encystment,Phytophthora cinnamomi zoospores bind firmly to the host surface. We have developed a microassay to study adhesion of the zoospores to solid surfaces, both biological and non-biological. The results show that timing of the acquisition of adhesiveness during encystment correlates closely with the secretion of high molecular weight glycoproteins. The adhesive phase is short lived, occurring between 1 and 4 min after induction of encystment. During this period, cells that come into contact with a variety of surfaces (glass, plastic, and onion epidermis) become firmly attached, while cells that come into contact with one of these substrata after this period are unable to bind. Our results also show that EGTA inhibits cyst adhesion, while addition of calcium promotes cyst adhesion, especially of cysts more than 4 min old. To help identify the cyst surface component involved in adhesion we tested a number of lectins for their ability to block cyst adhesion. Soybean agglutinin andHelix pomatia agglutinin, lectins which bind to the secreted high molecular weight glycoproteins, both inhibit adhesion in the presence and absence of the hapten sugar, indicating that inhibition was non-specific. Wheatgerm agglutinin, a lectin which does not bind to the cyst surface, also blocked adhesion non-specifically.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Calmodulin ; Flagellar swelling ; Flagellum ; Phytophthora cinnamomi ; Zoospore
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Calmodulin distribution in the tinsel and whiplash flagella of zoospores ofPhytophthora cinnamomi has been studied by immunofluorescence microscopy and immunogold labelling. In whole zoospores labelled with a monoclonal antibody raised against pea calmodulin, followed by a second antibody-FITC, both flagella appear to be weakly stained except for a region at the base of the tinsel flagellum which was stained intensely. A similar staining pattern was also detected in isolated flagella labelled with anti-calmodulin. To identify the calmodulin rich region of the tinsel flagellum, we labelled sections of zoospores embedded in Lowicryl K4M with anti-calmodulin followed by a second antibody gold probe. In the tinsel flagellum, the gold labelling was restricted to a paraxonemal swelling close to the base. Very little gold labelling was detected elsewhere. The swelling extends for 1.5–2.0 μn from the base of the tinsel flagellum and is hook shaped in cross section. Immunoblot analysis confirmed that the staining was specific for calmodulin.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: High pressure freezing ; Plunge freezing ; Freeze substitution ; Phytophthora ; Sporangia ; Immunogold labelling
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The effects of high pressure on the ultrastructure of sporangia ofPhytophthora cinnamomi andP. palmivora have been examined by comparing sporangia frozen in a Balzers hyperbaric freezer or pressurized in a French pressure cell with sporangia plunge frozen at ambient pressure. Both freeze fixation methods provided excellent preservation of most cell structures, but one organelle type seen in plunge frozen material, the large peripheral vesicle (LPV), was not observed in high pressure frozen sporangia. Instead, these sporangia contained large irregularly shaped structures which exhibit the patterns of spatial distribution and, forP. cinnamomi, the monoclonal antibody binding characteristic of LPVs. These findings suggest that some factor of the hyperbaric freezing process causes LPVs to be degraded. Sporangia ofP. cinnamomi that had been pressurized in a French pressure cell also exhibited large structures with the spatial distribution and monoclonal antibody binding characteristic of LPVs. The apparent expansion of LPVs that follows from both pressurizing treatments causes considerable passive disruption of sporangial structure. This is the first report of a major disturbance of cell structure from use of the Balzers hyperbaric freezer, and reflects the lability, noted in previous work, of LPVs inPhytophthora.
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