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  • 1
    ISSN: 0303-7207
    Keywords: Autocrine system ; Leydig cell ; Luteinizing hormone ; Neurophysin ; Vasopressin ; Vasopressin mRNA
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0304-4165
    Keywords: Hexosaminidase C ; Hydrophobic interaction ; Monocarboxylic acid ; Triton X-100
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Numerous outbreaks of gastroenteritis have been associated with Norwalk virus and Small Round Structured Viruses (SRSVs). These single-stranded RNA viruses, recently classified in the Caliciviridae, have been divided into three genogroups. Antigenic relationships also have been established among the different strains. As both an in vitro culture system and an animal model are lacking for these viruses, virus detection depends primarily on electron microscopy, immunological assays or molecular detection. In this study we first analyzed the genetic homology of the RNA polymerase region for 40 SRSV strains. From a consensus sequence for these strains, we designed a degenerate oligonucleotide to prime cDNA synthesis from viral RNA. We evaluated the degenerate primer in combination with three previously described primers in PCR reactions. A panel of 15 stools containing SRSVs, typed when possible by solid phase immune electron microscopy (SPIEM), were selected to represent all three genogroups and four different SPIEM antigenic types. Serial dilutions of the purified viral nucleic acids were amplified using the three different primer sets. Virus-specific probes were used to characterize the amplicons obtained. Virus-specific amplicons were obtained with at least one primer pair for each strain, but apparent viral RNA titers differed as much as 1 000-fold between primer sets. Amplicons from all but one of the 15 strains were confirmed as virus-specific using a panel of 10 different probes. Correlations between the most sensitive primer pair and SPIEM type were seen. This study showed that a single degenerate primer could be used in cDNA synthesis for a variety of SRSVs but that the sensitivity of the RT-PCR assay depended upon the second primer and virus-specific probes used.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary. Human calicivirus Sapporo (SV) has typical calicivirus morphology and causes acute gastroenteritis in children. The nucleotide sequence of 3.2 kb of the 3′ end of SV was determined from a cloned cDNA. The 3′ end of the SV genome is predicted to encode the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase region, the capsid protein and two small open reading frames. The nonstructural and capsid protein coding sequences in the SV genome are fused in a single open reading frame. The organization of these proteins in the SV sequence is similar to that of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and the recently described Manchester virus, and distinct from the genome organization of the prototype human calicivirus, Norwalk virus, that lacks typical calicivirus morphology and has been described as a small round structured virus (SRSV). Sequence analysis of the predicted capsid region showed that the SV capsid is longer by ∼30 amino acids than the capsid of any of the SRSVs, and multiple sequence alignments showed that these additional amino acids are located in the variable region of the capsid protein. Expression of the capsid protein of SV in insect cells resulted in the self-assembly of virus-like particles that have a morphology similar to that of the native virus. This result shows that calicivirus morphology is determined by the primary sequence of the capsid protein.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary.  The Snow Mountain agent (SMA) is the prototype genogroup II and serotype 3 human calicivirus responsible for epidemic outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. We have cloned the region of the SMA genome that encodes the single capsid protein. The predicted amino acid sequence of the capsid protein is distinct from other calicivirus strains that have been termed SMA-like based on sequence similarity between the RNA polymerase regions and IEM reactivity. In a previous report, a high sequence similarity in a small region of the RNA polymerase between SMA and another strain, OTH-25, suggested that the capsid proteins of OTH-25 and SMA would be very similar. In this report, we show that the capsid proteins of OTH-25 and SMA are more distinct than was predicted by homology in the RNA polymerase. In addition, phylogenetic analysis of a region of the RNA polymerase and of the N-terminal conserved domain of the capsid of 12 human caliciviruses resulted in trees with different topologies, suggesting that recombination has occurred within this group of viruses. Molecular characterization of the prototype calicivirus strains is important in determining the relationships between capsid similarity at the amino acid level, genetic grouping by sequence comparison, and antigenic reactivity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1433-2981
    Keywords: Whole blood platelet aggregometry ; Automated platelet count
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract There are many advantages in determining platelet aggregation in whole blood. The ability to carry out the assay more or less immediately the sample has been taken (i.e., without the need to prepare platelet rich plasma), and the testing of platelets in their natural environment (i.e., in the presence of red and white cells) are considered the two most important of these advantages. This paper describes the use of a continuous counting technique with a modified Technicon Autocounter, with reference to a similar ability to use sequential counting techniques with modern haematology analysers. Preliminary results using rat blood and two reference compounds are also reported.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Spermatheca ; newt spermatheca ; sperm storage ; sperm discharge from storage ; hormonal action in sperm discharge ; prostaglandin and sperm discharge
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Several neurotransmitters and hormones with potential to trigger a simultaneous contraction of the oviducts and the spermathecal myoepithelium were examined. Saline (0.05 ml), or 0.05 ml saline plus acetylcholine (9 mg), norepinephrine (50 μg), arginine-vasotocin (25 units), prostaglandin F2α(3μg) were injected into the spermathecal region of female newts (n=24 per group). The numbers of sperm present in the cloacae of prostaglandin-injected animals (107±30 SEM) were significantly greater than the numbers detected in saline (27±5 SEM) and in uninjected (14±3 SEM) controls. Smaller and less consistent increases in the numbers of sperm were detected in the vasotocin- and norepinephrine-injected groups. Study of sections from ovulating female newts failed to produce evidence that pressure from the passage of ova through the posterior portion of the oviduct forced sperm from the spermatheca. Observations indicate an active role for the spermathecal myoepithelium in the discharge of stored sperm and of a role for prostaglandin F2α in triggering that discharge.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Retinyl acetate ; retinoid concentration ; culture medium ; hamster ; cheek pouch ; organ culture ; mucous metaplasia ; glandular morphogenesis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The retinoid concentration (determined colorimetrically) did not change significantly in retinyl acetatesupplemented (6 μg/ml) Eagle's Minimal Essential Medium containing 10% fetal calf serum when stored at −20 or 4°C over 7 days. After the medium was incubated at 37°C for 48 h, 37–49% of the retinoid remained, whether or not tissue (neonatal Syrian hamster cheek pouch) was present, and irrespective of explant age. The normal retinoid level in the tissue was approximately 0.25 μg per gram. Therefore, neonatal hamster cheek pouches, incubated in medium with the addition of 6 μg of retinyl acetate per ml of medium and undergoing mucous metaplasia and some mucous gland morphogenesis, were continually being exposed to retinoid levels which, though gradually decreasing, remained well above their normal physiological level.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-2230
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We compared the skin of the mutant mouse asebia (ab/ab) with that of normal BALB/c mice by examining dermal cell counts, epidermal thickness, epidermal cell labelling index and ultrastructure. In asebia we found epidermal hyperproliferation and dermal inflammation, with much cell debris in the dermis. The very numerous macrophages, both intact and disintegrating, contained electron-lucent crystals, apparently composed of lipid. We hypothesize that these crystals cause macrophage lysis followed by dermal inflammation and finally hyperproliferation in the overlying epidermis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0020-711X
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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