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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Diabetic neuropathy ; nerve blood flow ; sural nerve ; sural sensory conduction velocity ; temperature ; exercise
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Severe microvascular disease exists at the stage of clinical diabetic neuropathy. A non-invasive test that will identify those diabetic subjects who will eventually develop neuropathy is essential for early intervention. Sural sensory conduction velocity was recorded (x 3) in 12 non-neuropathic diabetic subjects, 15 diabetic subjects with established neuropathy and 16 age-matched normal control subjects, before and after exercise to 80% age/sex predicted maximum heart rate. Fixed sural electrodes were used. Subcutaneous temperature was recorded by a needle thermocouple placed near the sural nerve. Sural sensory conduction velocity increased significantly after exercise in normal subjects (p〈0.01, mean increase 5.07 m/s) and non-neuropathic diabetic subjects (p〈0.02, mean increase 3.99 m/s) but not in neuropathic subjects (mean increase 0.99 m/s). Subcutaneous temperature rose significantly in normal subjects (p〈0.01, mean increase 2.07°C) and non-neuropathic diabetic subjects (p〈0.001, mean increase 2.52 °C) but not in neuropathic subjects (mean increase 0.15 °C). However, sural sensory conduction velocity increased by 1.2 m · s−1. °C−1 following direct warming of the limb in six neuropathic subjects which was comparable to that of normal and non-neuropathic subjects (1.49 and 1.48 m · s−1. °C−1). The impairment of exercise conduction increment in diabetic neuropathy suggests impaired nerve blood flow in diabetic neuropathy.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Keywords Diabetic neuropathy ; spectrophotometry ; sural nerve ; nerve blood flow ; oxygen saturation.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Aims/hypothesis. Experimental studies have shown that abnormalities of nerve microcirculation are important factors in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy but there have been few clinical studies. We have applied microlightguide spectrophotometry to measure intravascular oxygen saturation (HbO2%) and blood flow in human sural nerve. Methods. We studied ten patients with mild-moderate sensory motor diabetic neuropathy, nine patients without neuropathy and nine control subjects. We took 300 measurements of oxygen saturation under direct visual control through a 1.9 mm rigid endoscope over three regions of the nerve. Spectrophotometric measurements of nerve fluorescence were taken after an intravenous injection of sodium fluorescein and the rate of increase in nerve fluorescence (rise time) was used as an indicator of nerve blood flow. Results. Nerve oxygen saturation was reduced in patients with neuropathy compared with control subjects (67.1 ± 2.2 % vs 76.7 ± 2.1 %, p = 0.006). Fluorescein rise time was prolonged in patients with neuropathy compared with the control group (48.5 ± 7.0 s vs 14.0 ± 3.1 s, p = 0.001) suggesting impaired nerve blood flow. There was a correlation between rise time, nerve oxygen saturation, glycaemic control and sural nerve sensory conduction velocity (p 〈 0.01). Conclusion/interpretation. The combination of microlight-guide spectrophotometry and micro-endoscopy provides a valuable minimally invasive technique for clinical investigation of nerve microcirculation. We have shown reduced nerve oxygenation and impaired blood flow in diabetic neuropathy and these findings strongly support a central role of microvascular disease in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. [Diabetologia (1999) 42: 737–742]
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Anaesthesia 48 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2044
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: High continuous flow breathing systems are now available to provide fresh gas flows well in excess of 100 l.min−1 in continuous positive airway pressure systems used for respiratory support. The performance of two commonly used intensive care humidifiers, the Kendal Conchatherm and the Fisher and Paykel FP310 have been assessed at flows of 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 l.min −1. Their performance when using two humidifiers connected in parallel and in series was also studied. At afresh gas flow of 100 l.min−1 the single Conchatherm gave an absolute water vapour concentration of 15.6 g.m−3 and the single FP310 11.9 g.m−3. At all flows the best results were achieved using two Conchatherm humidifiers in series. It is concluded that with high continuous flow breathing systems the humidification achieved with conventional humidifiers may be inadequate and it may be necessary to combine two humidifiers to obtain clinically useful humidification.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 200 (1963), S. 606-607 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Three strains of E. coli, namely, B, B/r and strain II of Harris, Richards and Whitefield3, were treated with phenol so that the mortality in each case was about 90 per cent and counted on nutrient agar ('Oxoid CM 15', 16 g/1.; New Zealand agar, 15 g/L). A suitable dilution of the reaction mixture ...
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 52 (1987), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The effect of sucrose on the oxidation of ascorbic acid (A) in Cucatalyzed (1, 2.5, and 5 ppm) and noncatalyzed solutions was studied at 30°C in samples shaken at various speeds. In unbuffered solutions, all sucrose levels tested (10–40%) were protective of A without shaking; however, all sucrose levels tested were destructive of A at the highest speed of shaking. This observation was much more pronounced in Cu-catalyzed reactions. Sucrose enhanced the catalytic action of Cu on the oxidation of A. In 0.1M acetate-buffered sucrose solutions this destructive effect of sucrose was slightly diminished due to the Cu-complexing effect of the buffer salt.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 52 (1987), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Copper activity was measured by a cupric electrode in 0.1 M sodium acetate-acetic acid buffered (pH 3.2, 4.5, 6.0) and unbuffered sucrose solutions (10% w/v) using the standard addition technique (l–10 ppm of Cu++). In water, the measured copper concentration (activity) was linearly related to the added copper concentration with a slope of unity. The slope decreased in acetate buffer solutions as pH increased indicating that Cu++ was complexed with acetate and to a greater extent at higher pH. In the presence of sucrose, copper activity increased approximately 16% in all solutions. Results suggest that the bulking effect of sucrose and the decreased water activity in solutions produced increased copper activity in sucrose solutions.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 50 (1985), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: White potatoes and corn meal bread were treated with Streptomyces griseus and Streptomyces odorifer and stored 3 or 5 days at 30 ± 3°C with the objective of studying the growth of the two actinomycetes cultures and the distribution and nature of musty odor compounds that they may produce. Actinomycetes represented 11 - 14% of the total plate count after storage. Although judges rated treated samples as significantly (p 〈 0.05) more musty, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the actinomycetes cultures studied did not produce geosmin or 2- methyl-isoborneol, two important musty odor compounds.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 44 (1979), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Several processing methods were examined for their effectiveness in removing 90Sr and 137Cs from vegetables exposed to the radionuclides through the nutrient solution. The greatest decontamination resulted from a combination of pickling and canning which reduced 137Cs by 94% and 90Sr by 65%. Canning was highly effective in reducing radionuclide concentrations in beans and kale. Freezing significantly reduced radionuclide content of only 137Cs in kale. Blanching of sweet potatoes appeared to result in a transfer of radioactivity from the peel to core, indicating that skins of contaminated potatoes should be removed prior to thermal treatment. Preparatory procedures prior to processing did not significantly reduce radionuclide levels except for 137Cs in beans.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 56 (1991), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The effect of aspartame on the early stage of ascorbic acid oxidation in solutions was studied by measuring ascorbic acid retention in an open system at 30°C and the oxygen uptake in a closed system at 33°C. Comparisons were also made between aspartame (0.06% and 0.12%) and sucrose (10% and 20%) in Cu-catalyzed and noncatalyzed solutions at 30°C. Copper activity in aspartame solution was measured by using a cupric ion selective electrode. Aspartame increased the rate of ascorbic acid oxidation in all tested solutions. In the presence of copper the oxidation rate of ascorbic acid was significantly higher in aspartame solutions than in sucrose solutions despite the fact that aspartame showed Cu-complex capacity in solution.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 192 (1961), S. 87-88 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Chlorides of iron, chromium, calcium, magnesium and magnanese were added to the nutrient broth ('Oxoid CM 15', 16 gm./l.) before sterilization to give concentrations of 0-0037, 0-00185, 0-000925, 0-00037, and 0-000185 M. The method of counting has been described in ref. 1; ten drops of a diluted ...
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