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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Amblyopia ; Human ; Psychophysics ; Edge-detection ; Subthreshold addition ; Contrast sensitivity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Detection of broadband, aperiodic stimuli (edges) was investigated in normal observers, and in observers with abnormal visual experience which resulted in amblyopia. The spatial properties of the mechanisms used to detect an edge were investigated by a method of subthreshold addition. The method involved the determination of the threshold contrast for detecting an edge in the presence of a subthreshold line at various distances from the edge. In normal eyes, the one dimensional sensitivity profile of the edge detecting mechanism was: (1) approximately antisymmetric, (2) very localized, with sensitivity changes restricted to ±6'–8' on either side of the edge, and (3) phase dependent, showing an abrupt change in sign between ±1.5'. The sensitivity profiles of the amblyopic eyes were also approximately antisymmetric and showed the same steep rate of change from plus to minus as the fellow (nonamblyopic) eyes. However, in every case, the spatial extent of the profile was much broader than that of the nonamblyopic eyes. In normal eyes, the narrowest edge sensitivity profile was associated with the fovea; however, in two amblyopes with eccentric fixation, the narrowest edge sensitivity profile coincided with the locus of eccentric fixation. Moreover, the grating sensitivity function of the edge detecting mechanism of the amblyopic eye was similar to that of the non-amblyopic eye, but was shifted toward lower spatial frequencies. Control experiments show that these results are not accounted for on the basis of optics, eccentric fixation, or abnormal eye movements. The findings are discussed in terms of current models for the detection of aperiodic stimuli, and in the context of animal models of amblyopia.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Amblyopia ; Stimulus deprivation ; Reverse deprivation ; Lateral geniculate nucleus ; Striate cortex ; Cytochrome oxidase ; Rhesus monkey
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Monkeys had one eye closed at about 30 days of age for 14, 30, 60, or 90 days, then opened, and the fellow eye closed for another 120 days. The animals then had at least 10 months of binocular visual experience before extensive behavioral training and testing were carried out. In terminal experiments concluded more than 18 months later, microelectrode investigations of the striate cortex demonstrated that there was almost a complete absence of binocular neurons in all animals. The initially deprived eyes (IDEs) dominated the majority of cortical neurons, even when soma size measurements of lateral geniculate neurons indicated that the LGN cells driven by the IDE had not regained their normal size. The monkeys which had significant interocular differences in spatial vision also exhibited abnormalities in the distribution of the metabolic enzyme, cytochrome oxidase (CO), within the striate cortex. These results demonstrate that many of the severe alterations in cortical physiology and eye dominance produced by early monocular form deprivation can be reversed, with recovery of normal cortical function, via the reverse-deprivation procedure.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Amblyopia ; Stimulus deprivation ; Reverse deprivation ; Psychophysics ; Contrast sensitivity ; Spectral sensitivity ; Oblique effects ; Rhesus monkey
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Monkeys had one eye closed at about 30 days of age for 14, 30, 60, or 90 days, then opened, and the fellow eye closed for another 120 days. The animals then had at least 10 months of binocular visual experience before behavioral training and testing were begun. All subjects were used in a series of psychophysical investigations during the next two years. The results of the behavioral studies indicated that the initially deprived eyes (IDE) of the two monkeys that were subjected to initial deprivation periods of 14 or 30 days recovered normal or nearnormal spatial contrast sensitivity. In contrast, the two animals which underwent longer periods of initial deprivation showed incomplete recovery, especially for high spatial frequency stimuli. All of the monkeys exhibited a reduction in spatial contrast sensitivity for their reverse deprived eyes (RDE); the earlier the onset of the reverse-deprivation procedures (i.e., the, shorter the initial period of deprivation), the greater the deficit in the RDE's spatial contrast sensitivity. Measurements of temporal contrast sensitivity showed that all of the subjects' IDEs had normal or near-normal sensitivity levels. However, the reverse-deprivation procedures initiated at 90 days of age or earlier produced a frequency dependent reduction in the RDE's temporal modulation sensitivity. The measures of increment-threshold spectral sensitivity revealed that only the RDE of the monkey that had the shortest initial deprivation period had an abnormal spectral sensitivity function. The results demonstrate that many of the severe behavioral deficits produced by early monocular form deprivation can be recovered via reverse deprivation procedures. However, depending upon the length of the initial deprivation period and the age at which the reversal procedure is initiated, the second deprivation period can also adversely affect the functional capacity of the RDE.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Experimental brain research 37 (1979), S. 87-91 
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Fusion ; Vergence ; Monkey ; Binocular vision
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Fusional vergence ranges were behaviorally determined for two rhesus monkeys and two human subjects using random dot stereograms as stimuli. The subject performed a two-alternative forced choice form discrimination of discretely presented stimuli and the fusional vergence stimulus was changed during the intertrial intervals. The fusional vergence measurements for the monkey were similar to those for the human subjects.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Oblique effect ; Vertical effect ; Meridional amblyopia ; Animal psychophysics ; Monkeys
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Orientation anisotropies were investigated for monkeys with normal visual acuity and for monkeys with experimentally induced amblyopia. It was found that the majority of control monkeys showed a normal oblique effect if any existing refractive errors were carefully corrected, but a few of the control monkeys had a meridional amblyopia, i.e., an orientation anisotropy in which the grating orientation for the greatest and lowest contrast sensitivities were correlated with the principal meridians of an astigmatic refractive error even when the refractive error was corrected. For monkeys with strabismic amblyopia caused by a surgically induced divergent strabismus, the orientation anisotropies showed a vertical effect in which contrast sensitivity was lower for vertically oriented gratings than for horizontally oriented gratings. However, monkeys with the same degree of amblyopia resulting from experimental procedures that did not involve a misalignment of the visual axes showed orientation anisotropies that corresponded to the usual oblique effect.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Experimental brain research 39 (1980), S. 351-356 
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Oblique effect ; Meridional amblyopia ; Contrast sensitivity ; Animal psychophysics ; Reaction time
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Contrast sensitivity as a function of the orientation of a grating stimulus was determined by behavioral methods for four rhesus monkeys. Two of the monkeys had been reared with normal binocular experience, had spherical refractive errors, and showed a normal oblique effect. The other two monkeys which had been reared with one eyelid sutured (which was still sutured during these experiments), showed astigmatic refractive errors in the non-deprived eye and grating contrast sensitivity as a function of orientation that was correlated with the principal meridians of their astigmatism. Control experiments showed that the meridional amblyopia was not due to an uncorrected refractive error. Reaction time measures of contrast sensitivity for suprathreshold grating patterns showed that meridional amblyopia was not present for high contrast gratings.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-2622
    Keywords: Binocular interactions ; Psychophysics ; Amblyopia and strabismus ; Dichoptic masking ; Binocular vision ; Contrast sensitivity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Binocular interactions for grating patterns were investigated in humans with normal binocular vision and in humans with abnormal binocular visual experience due to strabismus and/or amblyopia via 1) comparison of monocular and binocular contrast thresholds; 2) interocular transfer of the threshold elevation aftereffect; and 3) dichoptic masking. Whereas the normal observers showed improved binocular over monocular contrast sensitivity (i.e., binocular summation) and substantial interocular transfer of the threshold elevation aftereffect, the abnormal observers showed an absence of binocular summation and no significant interocular transfer. The dichoptic masking experiments showed that a suprathreshold masking grating presented to one eye elevated the contrast threshold for gratings presented to the fellow eye, within a narrow range of spatial frequencies (about 1 octave wide at half height) and orientations, centered about the spatial frequency and orientation of the mask. The magnitude and bandwidth of this masking effect was similar in subjects with normal and abnormal binocular vision, occurring even when the masking grating was presented to the amblyopic eye. These effects depend upon the contrast of the masking grating. In individuals with normal binocular vision, a grating with subthreshold contrast presented to one eye reduces the contrast threshold for detection of gratings of similar spatial frequency and orientation presented to the fellow eye. No such subthreshold summation is evident in the amblyopic observers. We conclude that while strabismus and/or amblyopia disrupted the normal excitatory interactions between the two eyes, cortical inhibitory binocular connections were not disrupted.
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