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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Peritoneal macrophages elicited by Lactobacillus casei YIT9018 (LCEPM) were incubated in culture for 18 h with L. casei; the culture supernatant (LCM) was then harvested and tested for its ability to increase the cytostatic activity of resident peritoneal macrophages (RPM) and LCEPM. Treatment of RPM with LCM induced activation of macrophages to a cytostatic state against L929, Colon 26, P815, P388D1 and L1210 cells. A combination of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (rhTNF), recombinant mouse TNF (rmTNF), recombinant human interleukin-1 (rhIL-1) or bacterial lipopolysaccharide with recombinant mouse interferon γ (rmIFN-γ) resulted in the synergistic induction of cytostatic activity in RPM. Recombinant mouse granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rmGM-CSF) plus rhTNF increased the cytostatic activity of RPM a little but rmGM-CSF or rhTNF combined with rhIL-1 or alone had no effect. The effect of LCM on RPM was not inhibited by polymyxin B, anti-mTNF antiserum or below 20 U/ml monoclonal anti-rmIFN-γ antibody (anti-rmIFN-γ) but was inhibited by more than 40 U/ml anti-rmIFN-γ, and LCM did not have any interferon antiviral activity. These results suggest that the cytostatic activity of RPM was augmented by the LCM, and that the effect of the LCM may be not due to IFN-γ, TNF, GM-CSF, IL-1 or a small amount of contaminating lipopolysaccharide.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: arginine-vasopressin (AVP) ; amygdala ; cerebral cortex ; N-benzyloxycarbonyl-thioprolylthioprolinal-dimethylacetal (ZTTA) ; prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) ; leucine incorporation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: N-benzyloxycarbonyl-thioprolythioprolinal-dimethylacetal (ZTTA) ; prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) ; PEP inhibitor ; basal forebrain lesion ; choline acetyltransferase ; step-through type passive avoidance test
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-4986
    Keywords: fucoidan ; sulfated fucan ; seaweed
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract A structural study was carried out on a fucoidan isolated from the brown seaweed Cladosiphon okamuranus. The polysaccharide contained fucose, glucuronic acid and sulfate in a molar ratio of about 6.1 : 1.0 : 2.9. The results of Smith degradation showed that this polysaccharide has a linear backbone of 1→3-linked α-fucopyranose with a half sulfate substitution at the 4-positions, and a portion of the fucose residues was O-acetylated. The data obtained from partial acid hydrolysis, a methylation analysis and NMR spectra indicated that the α-glucuronic acid residue is linked to the 2-positions of the fucose residues, which were not substituted by a sulfate group. These results indicated that the average structure of this fucoidan is as follows: -[(→3Fuc-4(±OSO3-)α1−)5→3[GlcAα1→2]Fucα1−]n−. (Half of each fucose residue was sulfated. One O-acetyl ester was present in every 6 fucose residues.)
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1523-5378
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background. Recently, the acquisition by Helicobacter pylori of resistance to antibiotics has become a serious problem. Therefore, nonantibiotic substances are required to diminish H. pylori-induced gastric lesions. In the present study, the effects of Cladosiphon fucoidan were examined in terms of H. pylori attachment to porcine gastric mucin in vitro and Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis in vivo.Methods. The inhibitory effect of Cladosiphon fucoidan and other polysaccharides on H. pylori attachment to porcine gastric mucin was assayed in vitro with mucin-coated microtiter plates. The effect of Cladosiphon fucoidan on H. pylori-induced gastritis was examined in vivo using Mongolian gerbils. H. pylori-inoculated gerbils were given fucoidan in drinking water. Six weeks after H. pylori-inoculation, gerbils were sacrificed for macroscopic and microscopic examination of gastric lesions and counting of viable H. pylori in the gastric mucosa.Results. Cladosiphon fucoidan inhibited the H. pylori attachment to porcine gastric mucin at pH 2.0 and 4.0. Two other sulfated polysaccharides, Fucus fucoidan and dextran sulfate sodium, also inhibited the attachment but only at pH 2.0. Inhibitory effects of these three sulfated polysaccharides were not observed at pH 7.2 and nonsulfated polysaccharides, such as mannan and dextran, exerted no influence at any pH. In the in vivo experiment, the H. pylori-induced gastritis and the prevalence of H. pylori infected animals were markedly reduced by fucoidan in a dose-dependent manner, at doses of 0.05 and 0.5% in the drinking water.Conclusion. Cladosiphon fucoidan may deserve particular attention as a safe agent that can prevent H. pylori infection and reduce the risk of associated gastric cancer.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The ability of Kupffer cells, spleen macrophages, pulmonary macrophages, and peritoneal macrophages (PM) to produce cytotoxic factor (CTF) was investigated in vitro. The production of CTF by Kupffer cells elicited with Corynebacterium parvum (CP) or Lactobacillus casei YIT9018 (LC9018) was higher than that of spleen, pulmonary macrophages, or PM. In addition, oxygen radical (OR) production by Kupffer cells or PM was measured. The production of OR by Kupffer cells or PM was significantly augmented by i.v. or i.p. injection of LC9018 or CP. No significant correlation was observed between the increase in OR production by Kupffer cells or PM and CTF production by Kupffer cells or PM elicited with either organism. It was suggested that activated Kupffer cells may be one important source of CTF production in serum and that the CTF-producing macrophages may be different from the OR-producing macrophages.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effect of tumor cells and immunostimulants on the release of cytostatic factors (CF) from Lactobacillus casei YIT 9018 (LC)-, Corynebacterium parvum (CP)- or peptone-elicited peritoneal macrophages (PM) was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Significant release of CF into the culture medium from PM elicited with LC was induced by seven of eight mitomycin C-pretreated tumor cell lines and not by normal spleen cells, while no CF was released extracellularly from peptone-elicited PM given the same stimulus. CF were released from LC-elicited PM (LCEPM) after stimulation with LC, bacille Calmette-Guérin, streptococcal preparation OK-432, fucoidan or lipopolysaccharide, and LC but not CP induced CF production in the peritoneal cavities of LC- or CP-primed mice. The release of CF from LCEPM after stimulation with mitomycin C-pretreated 3T12-3 cells was inhibited by D-mannose and not by L-fucose. L-Rhamnose and mannose 6-phosphate, but not D-mannose or L-fucose, caused the release of CF from the PM. It was suggested that the release of CF from activated PM is caused by stimulation by some tumor cells, sugars, or bacterial immunostimulants, D-Mannose and L-rhamnose on the surface of tumor cells or bacteria, respectively, may play an important role in the release of CF from activated macrophages.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0843
    Keywords: Key words Irinotecan hydrochloride ; CPT-11 ; SN-38 ; Delayed-onset diarrhea ; Pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Purpose: Clinically, diarrhea is the major dose-limiting toxicity of irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11). Using a rat model, we attempted to decrease the incidence of delayed-onset diarrhea by modifying the administration schedule of CPT-11, and studied the pharmacokinetics in this model in relation to the incidence of diarrhea. Methods: CPT-11 (total dose, 240 mg/kg) was administered intravenously (i.v.) to rats according to various schedules, and the incidence of delayed-onset diarrhea was monitored. Results: Administration of CPT-11 at a dose of 60 mg/kg once daily for four consecutive days induced severe diarrhea, while at 30 mg/kg twice daily at an interval of 9 h (daily dose 60 mg/kg) for four consecutive days alleviated the diarrheal symptoms, and at 30 or 40 mg/kg once daily for eight or six consecutive days, respectively, diarrhea was hardly induced. With the first schedule, mucosal impairment of the cecal epithelium was observed, including wall thickening, edema, decrease in crypt number and size, and formation of pseudomembrane-like substance, whereas these changes were less severe with the second schedule and were hardly observed with the other two schedules. The areas under the plasma and cecal tissue concentration-time curves (AUCpla and AUCcec), the maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) and the biliary excretions of CPT-11 and its metabolites, 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38) and SN-38 glucuronide (SN-38G) in rats depended on the daily dose of CPT-11. Exceptionally, CPT-11 Cmax was significantly lower and SN-38 AUCcec was larger in the animals treated at 30 mg/kg twice daily than in those treated at 60 mg/kg once daily. Conclusion: These results suggested that the duration of exposure to both CPT-11 and SN-38 of the intestinal epithelium and CPT-11 plasma Cmax are closely related to the incidence and severity of CPT-11-induced delayed-onset diarrhea in rats.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1831
    Keywords: Key wordsLactobacillus casei ; Intrapleural administration ; Cytokine ; BALB/c mice
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effects Lactobacillus casei YIT9108 (LC 9018) on antitumor activity and cytokine production in Meth A fibrosarcoma (Meth A)-bearing BALB/c mice were examined. Intrapleural (i.pl.) administration of LC 9018 was effective in prolonging the survival of Meth A-bearing mice, and frequently cured mice of the tumor. However, the results also indicated that the effect of LC 9018 was in part inhibited in mice treated with anti-CD3 or anti-CD8 antibody, but not affected in anti-CD4 antibody-treated mice. In contrast, LC 9018 had little effect on Meth A-bearing SCID or nude mice. These results demonstrated that CD8+ T cells participated in prolonging the survival of Meth A-bearing mice. Moreover, the examination of the production of several cytokines revealed that the production of interferon-γ and interleukin-6 was, in particular, augmented in the exudated fluid of the thoracic cavity in BALB/c mice injected with LC 9018 i.pl. These results suggested that i.pl. administration of LC 9018 induced those cytokines which had the potential to activate the thoracic macrophages or proliferate the thoracic lymphocytes to the cytotoxic T cells. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that the prolonging effects on survival by i.pl. administration of LC 9018 depended on CD8+ T cells, and the i.pl. administration of LC 9018 into i.pl. Meth A-bearing mice induced several cytokines which participated in the subsequent immunoresponses.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1831
    Keywords: Key wordsLactobacillus casei ; Intrapleural injection ; Cytokine ; Tumor necrosis factor-α ; Antitumor effect
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The involvement of several cytokines in the antitumor effect induced by intrapleural (i.pl.) injection of heat-killed cells of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LC 9018) in mice was investigated. Injection of LC 9018 i.pl. into Meth A fibrosarcoma (Meth A)-bearing mice not only significantly prolonged the survival of the mice, but also effectively inhibited the accumulation of malignant pleural fluid in the thoracic cavity. In the thoracic cavity of tumor-bearing mice treated with LC 9018, we observed large amounts of several cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Both anti-IFN-γ and anti-IL-12 monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatments partially diminished the antitumor activity of LC 9018 in vivo, while the treatment of anti-IL-1β mAb did not influence the survival of the mice. However, anti-TNF-α mAb treatment completely abolished the antitumor effect of LC 9018 in vivo, suggesting that in this model LC 9018 has a survival-prolonging effect involving certain cytokines. Moreover, i.pl. injection of mouse recombinant TNF-α into Meth A-bearing mice pretreated with anti-TNF-α mAb partially restored the survival-enhancing effect of LC 9018. These results led us to conclude that TNF-α induced by i.pl. injection of LC 9018 plays an important role in the antitumor effect of LC 9018 in vivo.
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