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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Thermophilic bacteria ; Obligate thermophile ; B. stearothermophilus ; Loss of viability ; Leakage of ribonucleoprotein ; Low temperatures
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract One of the obligate thermophilic bacteria, Bacillus stearothermophilus, was unable to grow at temperatures below 35° C. About 80% of the population in the bacterial culture died at the temperatures, and the same extent of loss in either of the activities of oxygen consumption or synthesis of protein or nucleic acid of the organisms was observed. With the progress of death of the organisms, reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide came to be oxidized by the organisms, enzymes such as fructose-1,6-diphosphate aldolase, when the organisms were washed with phosphate buffer, were leaked out of the organisms, and an increasing amount of ribonucleoprotein was released into the culture medium. The change of the membrane state was then suggested to be one of the possible causes for the death of the organisms at the temperatures.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0778
    Keywords: antibody production ; culture medium ; fructose ; glutamine ; human monoclonal antibody ; lactic acid
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract It was found that the production of human monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) by human-human hybridomas can be significantly enhanced by replacing glucose with fructose in the dish culture medium. Optimization of initial concentrations of fructose and glutamine, another influencing factor for MoAb production, enabled an enhanced production of human MoAb 2.1 times higher than that obtained using the conventional culture media employing glucose. It was shown by kinetic analysis that enhanced MoAb production at the optimum fructose concentration can be attributed to the retention of high specific antibody production rates and diminished time lag during the course of culture. These dish culture results with fructose-containing medium were successfully applied to the continuous perfusion culture with a slight modification, where 2.9- and 1.9-fold enhancements in specific antibody production rate and MoAb concentration, respectively, were attained as compared with the conventional glucose-containing medium. An inverse relationship was observed between the secreted concentrations of lactic acid and MoAb when the hybridoma was cultured in the media containing varying concentrations of fructose, i.e., the lower the lactic acid concentration, the higher the MoAb production andvice versa, suggesting that fructose at appropriate concentrations in the medium can serve as an alternative sugar for the efficient production of human MoAbs, with reduced pH shifts, for the serum-free culture of human-human hybridomas.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0778
    Keywords: cytosolic phospholipase A2 ; human monoclonal antibody ; lung cancer ; molecular cloning ; tumor-associated antigen ; 14-3-3 protein
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract The human monoclonal antibody AE6F4 specifically reacts with human lung cancer tissues but does not with normal tissues. This monoclonal antibody recognizes a cytosolic 31 kDa antigen in the cancer cells. In a previous study, we elucidated that the 31 kDa antigen belonged to a family of proteins collectively designated as 14-3-3 proteins, which were known as protein kinase-dependent activators of tyrosine/trytophan hydroxylases, or protein kinase C inhibitor proteins. Here we report molecular cloning of the 31 kDa antigen from the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line, A549. Sequencing analysis indicates that the cloned cDNA is identical to that of previously reported human placental cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), which is also a member of the 14-3-3 protein family. Western analysis demonstrated that a 31 kDa recombinant cPLA2 expressed in monkey COS cells was recognized by the AE6F4 monoclonal antibody. Binding of the monoclonal antibody to the recombinant cPLA2 was abolished when treated with sodium periodate, suggesting that not only are carbohydrate chains associated with the cPLA2, but they also play a crucial role in antigen recognition by the monoclonal antibody.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0778
    Keywords: BHK-21 cells ; human monoclonal antibody ; ras oncogene ; synthetic attachment factor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract We compared serum and protein-free cultures ofa ras-amplified recombinant BHK-21 cell line(ras-rBHK-IgG), which hyperproduces a lungcancer specific recombinant human monoclonal antibody. Ras-rBHK-IgG cells were shown to grow well, evenin protein-free medium and to be morphologicallysimilar to cells cultured in serum containing medium. However, the growth rate of ras-rBHK-IgG cellswas considerably slower in protein-free medium, whichresults in a longer maintenance period compared with cells cultured in serum containing medium. In addition, it was found that antibody production in protein-free culture had a ten times higher maximum than cells cultured in serum containing medium. On theother hand, in high density culture, using the hollowfiber bioreactor system, ras-rBHK-IgG cellscould be maintained for a month in protein-freeculture in contrast with serum culture, which onlylasted for half a month. However, the markedincrease of antibody production was not observed. A total amount of about 15 mg of the recombinantantibody, obtained in protein-free culture, was abouttwo times of that obtained in serum culture, and wasshown to be reactive to lung cancer cells in tissue. From these properties in protein-free medium, it isconcluded that protein-free culture of ras-rBHK-IgG cells is suitable for middle scaleproduction of recombinant human monoclonal antibody.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0778
    Keywords: antibody production ; human monoclonal antibody ; hybridoma ; retinoic acid
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract The enhancement of human monoclonal antibody production by retinoic acid (RA) was evaluated usingthe human-human hybridoma cell line BD9 underserum-free culture condition. The amount of humanIgG secreted by BD9 hybriodmas was enhanced abouteight-fold by treatment with 10-7 M of RA for 4days. Northern blot analysis showed that both mRNAlevels of the IgG light and heavy chains were markedlyincreased by RA when compared with control without RAtreatment. On the other hand, it was found thatcontinuous treatment of cells with RA was not alwaysrequired to exhibit the enhancing effect, suggestingthat RA may act as a trigger for IgG gene expression. The comparison between extra- and intracellular IgGamounts by immunoblot analysis suggests that thesecretion rate of IgG may be accelerated by RAtreatment. These results suggest that RA may be aneffective culture additive for efficient production ofhuman monoclonal antibody using human-humanhybridomas.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0778
    Keywords: lactoferrin ; stimulation of IgM production ; human-human hybridomas ; serum-free culture
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract The effects of growth factors, such as insulin, transferrin, lactoferrin, ethanolamine, and selenium, on proliferation and IgM production of human-human hybridomas HB4C5 cells in a serum-free enriched RDF (eRDF) medium were studied. Among them, lactoferrin markedly stimulated proliferation and IgM production of the cells. Another iron-binding protein, transferrin, stimulated proliferation of HB4C5 cells as well as lactoferrin, but its stimulatory effect on IgM production was negligible. The proliferation and IgM production of HB4C5 cells gave some detectable delays in conventional ITES-eRDF medium at low cell densities, but the delays were avoided by the addition of lactoferrin. However, eRDF medium supplemented with lactoferrin could not support proliferation and IgM production of the cells at high cell densities. For proliferation and IgM production of HB4C5 cells, eRDF medium supplemented with 25 μg/ml lactoferrin, 10μM ethanolamine, 35 μ/ml transferrin, and 2.5 nM selenium (LETS-eRDF) gave the best result. Lactoferrin stimulated proliferation of human-human and mouse-mouse hybridomas producing IgG or IgM, but stimulation of Ig production was detected only in IgM producers. These results suggest that cell proliferation, IgM production, and IgG production of hybridomas are regulated by different mechanisms.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0778
    Keywords: cholera toxin B subunit ; human monoclonal antibody ; interleukin-2 ; interleukin-4 ; in vitro immunization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract In vitro immunization (IVI) techniques have a great potential in the production of human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against various antigens. An IVI method of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) has been developed with a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line in our laboratory. Although several cancer specific human MAbs were successfully generated by using this IVI method, it was not available for soluble antigens, which prompted us to improve the method for generation of human MAbs against soluble antigens. IVI with soluble antigens was effectively caused by the addition of muramyl dipeptides, interleukin-2 and interleukin-4. It was found that the difference of sensitivity of lymphocytes depending upon donors could be overcome by finding the optimal concentrations of IL-2 and IL-4. IVI of human PBL was performed with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and the immunized B cells were transformed by Epstein-Barr virus. Anti-CTB antibody was detected using an indirect ELISA. B cells producing anti-CTB antibodies were directly cloned by a soft agar cloning method.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-0778
    Keywords: antibody production ; human monoclonalantibody ; hybridoma ; lung cancer ; vitamin A acetate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract The antibody productivity of the human–human hybridoma cell line AE6, which produces the lung cancer specific human monoclonal antibody AE6F4, was enhanced fourfold upon stimulation with 1 μg/ml of vitamin A acetate for one day. The enhancement lasted for about two weeks, and could be repeated by another stimulation with vitamin A acetate. The enhancing effect of vitamin A acetate was influenced by the cell density. Enhancement was clearly observed when the cell density was under 106 cells/ml. However, when the cell density was over 107 cells/ml, enhancement was observed weakly or not at all. Although the enhancing effect of vitamin A acetate is not unique to AE6 cells, not all human–human hybridoma cell lines show increased productivity upon VA acetate stimulation. This study suggests that the response to vitamin A acetate may be related to the properties of a particular fusion partner which the hybridoma cell inherits. The efficacy of vitamin A acetate for production of human monoclonal antibodies using human–human hybridomas is discussed.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0173-0835
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A simple technique has been developed for the electrophoretic extraction of milligram to microgram quantities of protein, under constant monitoring by dye line, in a concentrated form from polyacrylamide gels run under alkaline, neutral and acidic conditions. Typically, the extraction time from 5 gel slices per tube containing about 1.2 mg of bovine serum albumin or α-chymotrypsinogen A was 3 h, and the maximum concentration of the recovered protein was 5 mg/ml with a total recovery of more than 90% in all cases. Higher protein concentrations (11 mg/ml) could be obtained by increasing the extraction time to 3.5 h or by using resins like glass beads. The alkaline extraction system has been applied to the purification of glutamyl-tRNA synthetase up to homogeneity, and also to ferritin. This technique can also be used under reducing conditions and the scale of operation can be adjusted by the number of tubes or number of slices.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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