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  • 1
    Abstract: The risk of Borrelia burgdorferi infection and the value of antibiotic prophylaxis after tick bite are controversial. In this study, performed in two areas of southwestern Germany, ticks were collected from 730 patients and examined by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for B. burgdorferi. To assess whether transmission of B. burgdorferi occurred, the patients were clinically and serologically examined after tick removal and during follow-up examinations. Data from all tick bites gave a total transmission rate of 2.6% (19 patients). Eighty-four ticks (11.3%) were PCR positive. Transmission occurred to 16 (26.7%) of 60 patients who were initially seronegative and could be followed up after the bite of an infected tick. These results indicate that the transmission rate from infected ticks in Europe is higher than previously assumed. Examination of ticks and antibiotic prophylaxis in the case of positivity appears to be indicated.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 9747761
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-093X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract SUMER – Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation – is not only an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer capable of obtaining detailed spectra in the range from 500 to 1610 Å, but, using the telescope mechanisms, it also provides monochromatic images over the full solar disk and beyond, into the corona, with high spatial resolution. We report on some aspects of the observation programmes that have already led us to a new view of many aspects of the Sun, including quiet Sun, chromospheric and transition region network, coronal hole, polar plume, prominence and active region studies. After an introduction, where we compare the SUMER imaging capabilities to previous experiments in our wavelength range, we describe the results of tests performed in order to characterize and optimize the telescope under operational conditions. We find the spatial resolution to be 1.2 arc sec across the slit and 2 arc sec (2 detector pixels) along the slit. Resolution and sensitivity are adequate to provide details on the structure, physical properties, and evolution of several solar features which we then present. Finally some information is given on the data availability and the data management system.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-093X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract SUMER – the Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of the Emitted Radiation instrument on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) – observed its first light on January 24, 1996, and subsequently obtained a detailed spectrum with detector B in the wavelength range from 660 to 1490 Å (in first order) inside and above the limb in the north polar coronal hole. Using detector A of the instrument, this range was later extended to 1610 Å. The second-order spectra of detectors A and B cover 330 to 805 Å and are superimposed on the first-order spectra. Many more features and areas of the Sun and their spectra have been observed since, including coronal holes, polar plumes and active regions. The atoms and ions emitting this radiation exist at temperatures below 2 × 106 K and are thus ideally suited to investigate the solar transition region where the temperature increases from chromospheric to coronal values. SUMER can also be operated in a manner such that it makes images or spectroheliograms of different sizes in selected spectral lines. A detailed line profile with spectral resolution elements between 22 and 45 mÅ is produced for each line at each spatial location along the slit. From the line width, intensity and wavelength position we are able to deduce temperature, density, and velocity of the emitting atoms and ions for each emission line and spatial element in the spectroheliogram. Because of the high spectral resolution and low noise of SUMER, we have been able to detect faint lines not previously observed and, in addition, to determine their spectral profiles. SUMER has already recorded over 2000 extreme ultraviolet emission lines and many identifications have been made on the disk and in the corona.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-093X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract We present new observations of O vi 1032 Å line profiles in polar plumes, and inter-plume regions, on the disk and above the limb in the north coronal hole obtained with the SUMER (Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation) instrument on the SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) spacecraft. On 22 May 1996, a 5 x 5 arc min spectroheliogram was scanned above the north polar coronal hole with the entrance slit extending from 1.03 to 1.33 solar radii with 1.5 arc sec spatial resolution and ≈ 0.044 Å per pixel spectral resolution in the wavelength range 1020–1040 Å. Detailed plume structure in O vi 1032 Å can be seen extending beyond 1.3 solar radii, with intensities in the plume regions 10–50% brighter, but line widths 10–15% narrower, than the inter-plume regions. Possible explanations for this observed anti-correlation between line width and intensity in the plume and inter-plume regions are discussed. We conclude that the source of the high-speed solar wind may not be polar plumes, but the inter-plume lanes associated with open magnetic field regions of the chromospheric network.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-093X
    Keywords: Solar EUV Emission Lines ; Coronal Heating ; Solar Wind Acceleration ; EUV Spectrometer
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The instrument SUMER - Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation is designed to investigate structures and associated dynamical processes occurring in the solar atmosphere, from the chromosphere through the transition region to the inner corona, over a temperature range from 104 to 2 × 106 K and above. These observations will permit detailed spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma densities and temperatures in many solar features, and will support penetrating studies of underlying physical processes, including plasma flows, turbulence and wave motions, diffusion transport processes, events associated with solar magnetic activity, atmospheric heating, and solar wind acceleration in the inner corona. Specifically, SUMER will measure profiles and intensities of EUV lines; determine Doppler shifts and line broadenings with high accuracy; provide stigmatic images of the Sun in the EUV with high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution; and obtain monochromatic maps of the full Sun and the inner corona or selected areas thereof. SUMER will be flown on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), scheduled for launch in November, 1995. This paper has been written to familiarize solar physicists with SUMER and to demonstrate some command procedures for achieving certain scientific observations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-093X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract New observations of systematic red shifts of transition region and coronal lines obtained with SUMER (Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation) on SOHO (the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) are presented. With the extensive wavelength coverage of SUMER it is possible to extend the measurements of the red shifts to much higher temperatures compared to previous instruments. We find lines formed in the upper transition region (e.g. Ov, Sv, and Svi) to be red-shifted similar to lower temperature lines (T ≤ 1.8 x 10-5 K). Even hotter lines such as Ovi, Neviii and Mgx show systematic red shifts on the order of 5 km s-1 in the quiet Sun. This is a new and significant result since previous measurements of the red shifts were less well constrained. The behavior of the red shifts above T = 10-5 K has been somewhat controversial. In some earlier investigations the magnitude of the red shift has been found to increase with temperature, reaching a maximum at T = 10-5 K and then to decrease toward higher temperatures. Thus, our results will put new constraints on theoretical models. The measured shifts are compared to recent observations of red-shifted emission in stellar spectra obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1439-0973
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung In manchen Fällen ist es schwierig, Infektionen mitBorrelia burgdorferi zu diagnostizieren und den Effekt einer Therapie abzuschätzen. Seropositivität bleibt selbst nach erfolgreicher Therapie bestehen und kann deshalb ein weiterbestehendes Infektionsgeschehen vortäuschen. Zum Direktnachweis vonB. burgdorferi-DNA in menschlichen Urinproben wurde das Verfahren der Polymerase-Kettenreaktion (PCR) evaluiert. Zur Anwendung kam ein Primersystem, dessen Zielsequenz auf dem Gen für die 23S rRNA liegt (Schwartz et al., J. Clin. Microbiol. 30: 3082–3088; 1992). Die Nachweisgrenze des Primersystems betrug 10 fg an extrahierter DNA vonB. burgdorferi. Zur Probenvorbereitung von Urinproben wurden mehrere Methoden getestet. Davon erwies sich das Geneclean® Kit (Fa. Bio 101) als am besten geeignet. Damit wurden insgesamt 114 Urinproben von Patienten aus drei klinischen Gruppen untersucht: (i) 51 Proben von 26 Patienten mit aktiver Lyme-Borreliose, (ii) 36 Proben von 27 symptomlosen Patienten mit vorangegangener Infektion, und (iii) 27 Proben von 21 seronegativen Kontrollpatienten ohne Lyme-Borreliose. Mit Hilfe der PCR bei Probenaufbereitung mit Geneclean® gelang ein Nachweis von Borrelien-DNA in 25 Proben von 17 Patienten mit aktiver Erkrankung, während 26 Proben aus dieser Gruppe negativ waren. Ein asymptomatischer Fall zeigte ein positives Resultat, und die Proben der Patienten ohne Lyme-Borreliose waren einheitlich negativ. Zwei von vier Patienten, von denen Urinproben vor und direkt nach Therapie verfügbar waren, zeigten eine Konversion von negativen zu positiven PCR-Resultaten nach Therapiebeginn, was auf einen Erregerzerfall und vermehrte Ausscheidung von Borrelien-DNA schließen läßt. Die Positivität unter Therapie war korreliert mit dem klinischen Auftreten einer Jarisch-Herxheimer-Reaktion. Die vorliegenden Ergebnisse lassen schließen, daß zwar ein negatives PCR-Ergebnis nicht gegen Krankheitsaktivität spricht, da nur 17 der 26 Patienten mit aktiver Erkrankung positive Resultate zeigten, jedoch daß ein positives PCR-Resultat als Hinweis auf eine aktive Infektion gewertet werden kann.
    Notes: Summary It is difficult in some cases to identify an infection caused byBorrelia burgdorferi and to monitor the effect of therapy. Seropositivity will persist even after successful treatment and therefore may suggest ongoing infection. For direct detection ofB. burgdorferi DNA in human urine samples, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was evaluated. A published primer system was selected, which amplifies a 259 bp fragment from the gene encoding the 23S rRNA. The lower detection limit of the primer system was 10 fg of extractedB. burgdorferi DNA. Several methods for the pretreatment of urine sample were tested. Of these, the Geneclean® kit (Bio 101, USA) showed the best results. A total of 114 urine samples from 74 patients belonging to three clinical groups was investigated: (i) 51 samples from 26 patients with active Lyme disease, (ii) 36 samples from 27 patients with previous infection but no symptoms at the time the urine was collected, and (iii) 27 samples from 21 seronegative control patients without Lyme disease.B. burgdorferi DNA was detected in 25 urine samples of 17 patients with active disease, whereas 26 samples from this group of patients were negative. Only one asymptomatic case with previous infection showed a positive result, and the urine samples of the patients without Lyme disease were uniformly negative. Two of four patients from whom samples before and directly after onset of therapy were available converted from negative to positive PCR results after initiation of therapy, accompanied by the symptoms of a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction. It can be concluded from these results that a positive PCR from urine is with high probability an indicator of active Lyme disease. On the other hand, as only 17 of the 26 patients with active infection were positive, a negative PCR result does not exclude active infection.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1439-0973
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die geringe Ansprechrate der Lyme-Arthritis auch bei intravenöser und hochdosierter Gabe von Penicillin G hat das Interesse an neueren Antibiotika zur Behandlung der Lyme-Borreliose im Spätstadium erhöht. Wie schon auf Grund vorliegender In-vitro-Daten zur Empfindlichkeit vonBorrelia burgdorferi erwartet werden konnte, sind Cephalosporine der dritten Generation sehr viel effektiver als Penicillin G. In der hier vorgestellten randomisierten prospektiven Untersuchung wurde deshalb Cefotaxim in einer Dosierung von 2 × 3 g täglich mit Penicillin G in einer Dosierung von 2 × 10 Mega-Einheiten verglichen. 135 Patienten, bei denen eine definierte klinische Symptomatik im Sinne einer Stadium-3-Borreliose für mindestens sechs Monate bestanden hatte und bei denen Antikörper gegenB. burgdorferi nachweisbar waren, wurden in die Studie aufgenommen. Die Patienten wurden 24 Monate nachbeobachtet und im Abstand von drei Monaten reevaluiert. Die mit Cefotaxim behandelten Patienten zeigten ein signifikant besseres Therapieergebnis. Während in der Penicillin-Gruppe nur 61,3% der Patienten eine Voll- oder Teilremission ihrer Beschwerden zeigten, konnte dies bei der Cefotaxim-Gruppe bei 87,9% der Patienten erreicht werden (p=0,002). Parallel zum klinischen Effekt war ein Absinken der Antikörpertiter im Immunfluoreszenztest zu beobachten. Herxheimer-artige Reaktionen waren bei 20% der Patienten der Penicillin-Gruppe und bei 40,5% der Patienten der Cefotaxim-Gruppe zu beobachten. Diese Reaktion kann als Hinweis auf ein Ansprechen der Therapie gewertet werden.
    Notes: Summary The low responsiveness of Lyme arthritis to high dose intravenous penicillin G therapy has evoked the demand for new drugs for the treatment of late stage borreliosis. As can be deduced fromin vitro susceptibility data, third generation cephalosporins are far more effective onBorrelia burgdorferi spirochetes than penicillin G. The study presented here was designed to compare cefotaxime at a dosage of 2 × 3 g/day with penicillin G at a dosage of 2 × 10 megaunits/day, for ten days in a prospective randomized trial. A total of 135 patients were included in the study. They were diagnosed to suffer from late stage Lyme borreliosis on the basis of defined clinical symptoms compatible with stage three borreliosis manifestations of at least six months' duration and positive antibody titers againstB. burgdorferi. Final outcomes were recorded after a 24 month post-treatment observation period with re-examination at three-month-intervals. Cefortaxime proved to be significantly superior to penicillin G with 87.9% versus 61.3% of treatments resulting in full or incomplete remission of symptoms (p=0.002). Clinical remission was accompanied by declining antibody titers. Herxheimer-like reactions were observed in 20% of the patients of the penicillin group and in 40.5% of the patients of the cefotaxime group and may be interpreted as an indication of a response to therapy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1572-9672
    Keywords: Coronal Streamers ; Solar Wind ; UV Spectroscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The Ultraviolet Coronal Spectrometer on Spartan 201 obtained measurements of HI Ly α line profiles and O VI λ103.2/103.7 nm integrated intensities in a helmet streamer. Similar measurements were made on the solar disk to characterize the incident radiation which is the source for the resonantly scattered component of the lines. A description of the H I Ly α observations in the streamer will be presented. A more complete physical description of the observed coronal regions will become available after the analysis of additional data from coordinated observations made by visible coronagraphs and x-ray telescopes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1572-9672
    Keywords: Solar corona ; Solar wind ; UV spectroscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The instruments on the Spartan 201 spacecraft are an Ultraviolet Coronal Spectrometer and a White Light Coronagraph. Spartan 201 was deployed by the Space Shuttle on 11 April 1993 and observed the extended solar corona for about 40 hours. The Ultraviolet Coronal Spectrometer measured the intensity and spectral line profile of HI Lyα and the intensities of OVI 103.2 and 103.7 nm. Observations were made at heliocentric heights between 1.39 and 3.5 R⊙. Four coronal targets were observed, a helmet streamer at heliographic position angle 135°, the north and south polar coronal holes, and an active region above the west limb. Measurements of the HI Lyα geocorona and the solar irradiance were also made. The instrument performed as expected. Straylight suppression, spectral focus, radiometric sensitivity and background levels all appear to be satisfactory. The uv observations are aimed at determining proton temperatures and outflow velocities of hydrogen, protons and oxygen ions. Preliminary results from the north polar coronal hole observations are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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