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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Computational intelligence 8 (1992), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-8640
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: There have been many proposals for adding sound implementations of numeric processing to Prolog. This paper describes an approach to numeric constraint processing which has been implemented in Echidna, a new constraint logic programming (CLP) language. Echidna uses consistency algorithms which can actively process a wider variety of numeric constraints than most other CLP systems, including constraints containing some common nonlinear functions. A unique feature of Echidna is that it implements domains for real-valued variables with hierarchical data structures and exploits this structure using a hierarchical arc consistency algorithm specialized for numeric constraints. This gives Echidna two advantages over other systems. First, the union of disjoint intervals can be represented directly. Other approaches require trying each disjoint interval in turn during backtrack search. Second, the hierarchical structure facilitates varying the precision of constraint processing. Consequently, it is possible to implement more effective constraint processing control algorithms which avoid unnecessary detailed domain analysis. These advantages distinguish Echidna from other CLP systems for numeric constraint processing.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1467-8640
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Constraint satisfaction problems can be solved by network consistency algorithms that eliminate local inconsistencies before constructing global solutions. We describe a new algorithm that is useful when the variable domains can be structured hierarchically into recursive subsets with common properties and common relationships to subsets of the domain values for related variables. The algorithm, HAC, uses a technique known as hierarchical arc consistency. Its performance is analyzed theoretically and the conditions under which it is an improvement are outlined. The use of HAC in a program for understanding sketch maps, Mapsee3, is briefly discussed and experimental results consistent with the theory are reported.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of automated reasoning 17 (1996), S. 371-403 
    ISSN: 1573-0670
    Keywords: constraint logic programming ; projection constraints
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract In this paper, we describe Nicolog, a language with capabilities similar to recently developed constraint logic programming (CLP) languages such as CLP(BNR), clp(FD), and cc(FD). Central to Nicolog are projection constraints (PCs), a sublanguage for compiling and optimizing constraint propagation in numeric and Boolean domains. PCs are an interesting generalization of the indexical constraints introduced in cc(FD) and also found in clp(FD). Nicolog compiles a very general class of built-in constraints into equivalent sets of PCs, allowing an arbitrary mixture of integer (easily extensible to real) and Boolean operations. Nicolog also lets the user program PCs directly, making it possible to implement new sophisticated propagation procedures. We show that PCs are a simple, efficient, and flexible way to implement most of the propagation procedures possible in other FD CLP systems. These include procedures for cardinality, constructive disjunction, implication, and mixed Boolean/numeric constraints. Empirical results with a simple prototype Nicolog implementation based on the WAM architecture show it can solve hard problems with speed comparable to the fastest existing CLP systems.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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