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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Key words Sacral dysgenesis ; Anal stenosis ; Currarino syndrome ; Chromosome
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Most cases of sacral dysgenesis are considered to be sporadic events. We present two families in whom the presence of associated clinical features prompted specific investigation of chromosome 7, leading to the identification of an underlying chromosome 7q deletion causing sacral dysgenesis. All affected individuals had microcephaly and developmental delay. Detailed cytogenetic studies confirmed that all three affected individuals had a deletion of chromosome 7q associated with their sacral dysgenesis, developmental delay and related problems. The three affected patients were studied clinically, radiologically and cytogenetically. Eleven unaffected individuals from the two families were also investigated by genetic studies, specifically evaluating chromosome 7. Conclusion It is important that detailed family history, evaluation of associated malformations and the overall clinical picture be considered in identifying the underlying diagnosis in cases of anal stenosis/sacral agenesis. The cases we present demonstrate the value of detailed chromosome studies in such situations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Haemophilus ; Meningitis ; CSF shunt
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Haemophilus influenzae is an uncommon pathogen in shunted patients and there is uncertainty about optimal management. We report here two cases which were managed differently, with different outcomes. The first case was treated with chloramphenicol and the shunt was not removed. Although there were subsequent episodes of respiratory infection, the outcome was satisfactory. The second case was treated with cefuroxime and the shunt was exteriorized. Re-shunting was followed by relapse and further shunt removal. This and other case reports suggest that in Haemophilus meningitis in shunted patients treatment need not involve shunt removal, but that this is so only if appropriate antimicrobials such as chloramphenicol are used.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Sleep ; Sleep apnoea ; Treatment ; CPAP
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We studied a group of children (aged 2.2–15 years) with craniofacial dysostosis and obstructive sleep apnoea to assess the use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (n-CPAP) as a palliative form of treatment. A variable period of time was allowed for acclimatisation to n-CPAP (1 day to 2 months), depending on the patient. Patients were then admitted for their first CPAP trial. Baseline breathing difficulty and the effectiveness of n-CPAP were assessed by respiratory sleep studies. Successful results were obtained with n-CPAP in five of the eight patients, with marked clinical and polygraphic improvements of the respiratory pattern immediately after n-CPAP was established. Of the remaining three cases, one child needed a prolonged period of acclimatisation to the n-CPAP system, one was withdrawn from the study, and one failed to respond to n-CPAP and was found to have complete blockage of the upper airways as a result of enlarged adenoids. Our results confirm that n-CPAP can be tolerated even by young patients and can be effective, and that it may be a useful alternative palliative treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea in children with craniofacial syndromes.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Algorithmica 25 (1999), S. 196-221 
    ISSN: 1432-0541
    Keywords: Key words. Distance matrix, Evolution, Ordinal, Phylogeny, Species, Tree.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science , Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract. Sequence data for a group of species is often summarized by a distance matrix M where M[s,t] is the dissimilarity between the sequences of species s and t . An ordinal assertion is a statement of the form ``species a and b are as similar as species c and d '' and is supported by distance matrix M if M[a,b] ≤ M[c,d] . Recent preliminary research suggests that ordinal assertions can be used to reconstruct the evolutionary history of a group of species effectively. However, further research on the mathematical and algorithmic properties of ordinal assertions is needed to facilitate the development and assessment of inference methods that utilize ordinal assertions for reconstructing evolutionary histories. A (weighted ) ordinal representation of a distance matrix M is a (weighted) phylogeny T such that, for all species a , b , c , and d labeling T , d T (a,b) ≤ d T (c,d) if and only if M[a,b] ≤ M[c,d], where d T is the weighted path length when T is weighted, otherwise d T is the unweighted path length. Hence, an ordinal representation of M is a phylogeny that supports the same ordinal assertions supported by M , and so is the focus of our examination of the mathematical and algorithmic properties of ordinal assertions. As it turns out, ordinal representations are rich in structure. In this paper several results on weighted and unweighted ordinal representations are presented: — The unweighted ordinal representation of a distance matrix is unique. This generalizes the well-known result that no two phylogenies share the same distance matrix [10], [21]. — The unweighted ordinal representation of a distance matrix can be found in O(n 2 log 2 (n)) time. The algorithm presented improves upon an O(n 3 ) algorithm by Kannan and Warnow [13] that finds binary unweighted ordinal representations of distance matrices. — Under certain conditions, weighted ordinal representations can be found in polynomial time.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are often considered the standard for defining the practice of evidence-based medicine. Taken alone, they are, however, often insufficient to guide clinical care. Randomized controlled trials are clearly the best method to determine whether interventions are efficacious. They have, however, numerous limitations which make them difficult to carry out or limit applicability to routine clinical practice. Although observational studies also have inherent limitations, they provide data which can help to further explain the results of randomized controlled trials. The use of observational studies to frame randomized trials can allow better application of randomized controlled trial results to individual patients and can thus help to optimize delivery of care, inform clinical practice and determine the need for further such trials.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 59 (1899), S. 271-271 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] PERMIT me to make a few remarks on the notes of Prof. Willard Gibbs and Mr. Love in NATURE of December 29, 1898. Using Prof. Willard Gibbs's notation, write/.*-, for the series sin x - J sin 2x+ J sin 3* -... ± - sin nx, nand let Cn denote the curve whose equation is y = 2fxn. Consider ...
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1520-5045
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Industrial & engineering chemistry 46 (1954), S. 2592-2598 
    ISSN: 1520-5045
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 404 (2000), S. 56-59 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The production of materials with micrometre- and submicrometre-scale patterns is of importance in a range of applications, such as photonic materials, high-density magnetic data storage devices, microchip reactors and biosensors. One method of preparing such structures is through the ...
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