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  • 1
    ISSN: 0304-4165
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0304-4165
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Streptozotocin-diabetes ; retina ; liver hypertrophy ; sucrose diet ; lactate-pyruvate ratio ; glucose-6-phosphate ; glucose
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The feeding of starch- or sucrose-rich diets to normal rats for 20 days resulted in a significant increase in lactate level and L/P ratio in the retina in the sucrose-fed animals. There was no correlation between the glucose and lactate content of the blood and retina and it was concluded that the increased lactate content of the retina was derived from the fructose moiety of the sucrose. Liver hypertrophy occurred in both normal and diabetic animals fed the sucrose diet. When streptozotocin-diabetic rats were maintained for 20 days on the same diets significant increases in the lactic acid content of the blood and liver occurred, but the high level of lactate in the retina of the sucrose-fed normal rats was not further elevated. The feeding of sucrose to diabetic rats resulted in better metabolic control of both blood glucose and lactate as compared with the maintenance of these animals on a starch diet.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Sucrose-diet ; streptozotocin-diabetes ; retinopathy ; rats ; trypsin digests
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats have been maintained for 6–11 months on completely balanced, reconstituted diets in which the sole source of carbohydrate was either 68% corn starch or 68% sucrose. The retinal vascular system was isolated by trypsin digestion and examined histologically for the presence of tortuosity and irregularity of capillary diameter, increased PAS-positive deposits, microaneurysms, loss of pericytes, endothelial proliferation, acellularity and strand formation. None of these pathological changes occurred in normal rats fed a starch-rich diet, but all developed to a similar extent in the sucrose-fed normal rats and the starch-fed diabetic group. The changes were more severe in sucrose-fed diabetic rats after 6 months. In all groups the retinopathy progressed with time. The possibility that a factor common to both the ingestion of a sucrose-rich diet and streptozotocin diabetes in rats has been considered since, histologically, the retinopathy observed was identical both with respect to severity and rate of development in normoglycaemic, sucrose-fed and hyperglycaemic, starch-fed diabetic rats.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Diabetes ; retinopathy ; platelet adhesiveness ; ADP activated platelet aggregation ; ADP splitting enzymes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé L'adhésivité des thrombocytes, l'activation par l'ADP de leur agrégation et l'activité des enzymes scindant l'ADP dans le sang et le plasma ont été étudiés chez 22 diabétiques porteurs de rétinopathie grave, chez 22 sujets diabétiques anciens avec une rétinopathie minime ou nulle et chez 28 sujets témoins. On a mesuré le taux d'agrégation des thrombocytes sous l'effet de 5, 3, 2 et 1 μM d'ADP, le maximum d'agrégation atteint et le taux de désagrégation de ces agrégats. Les thrombocytes des sujets atteints de rétinopathie fortement évolutive sont apparus plus sensibles à l'effet de faibles concentrations d'ADP; on a observé un accroissement significatif du degré d'agrégation et une diminution de la vitesse de désagrégation des agrégats thrombocytaires formés dans les conditions expérimentalesin vitro. Si cela se produisaitin vivo, il pourrait en résulter une occlusion des capillaires. Cette sensibilité accrue à l'ADP et cette incapacité à se désagréger n'étaient pas dues à une différence dans l'activité du système d'enzymes scindant l'ADP dans le sang. On n'observe pas de différences significatives dans ces paramètres si l'on compare le groupe important des diabétiques avec les sujets témoins. Contrairement à certains rapports, aucun des deux groupes de diabétiques ne présentait d'accroissement apparent de l'adhésivité des thrombocytes.
    Abstract: Zusammenfassung An 22 Diabetikern mit schwerer Retinopathie, an weiteren 22 Diabetikern mit langem Krankheitsverlauf, aber keiner oder minimaler Retinopathie und an 28 Kontrollpersonen wurde die Adhäsion der Thrombocyten, die Aggregation der durch ADP aktivierten Thrombocyten und die Aktivität von ADP spaltenden Encymen im Blut und Plasma gemessen. Der Grad der Thrombocytenaggregation, ihr Maximum und der Grad der Desaggregation wurden unter dem Einfluß von 5, 3, 2, und 1 μM ADP bestimmt. Die Thrombocyten bei aktiv fortschreitender Retinopathien waren gegenüber der Wirkung von geringen Konzentrationen von ADP empfindlicher. Es wurde auch eine signifikante Erhöhung des Ausmaßes der Aggregation und eine Verminderung des Desaggregationsgrades von Thrombocytenaggregaten, die sich unterin vitro Bedingungen gebildet hatten, festgestellt. Wenn diesin vivo vorkommen sollte, kann daraus ein Verschluß von Kapillaren entstehen. Die erhöhte Empfindlichkeit gegenüber ADP und die Unfähigkeit zur Desaggregation war nicht auf Unterschiede in der Aktivität von ADP spaltenden Enzymen des Blutsystems zurückzuführen. Bei dem Vergleich der großen Gruppe von Diabetikern mit der Kontrollgruppe wurden keine signifikanten Unterschiede der Parameter aufgedeckt. Im Gegensatz zu einigen Berichten in der Literatur konnte bei keiner der Diabetikergruppen eine Erhöhung der Adhäsion von Thrombocyten gefunden werden.
    Notes: Summary Platelet adhesiveness, ADP-activated platelet aggregation and the activity of the ADP-splitting enzymes in blood and plasma have been studied in 22 diabetics with severe retinopathy, 22 long-duration diabetics with minimal or no retinopathy and 28 control subjects. The rate of platelet aggregation under the influence of 5, 3, 2 and 1 μM ADP, the maximum aggregation attained and the rate of disaggregation of these aggregates were measured. The platelets from actively deteriorating retinopaths were found to be more sensitive to the effect of low concentrations of ADP; a significant increase in the extent of aggregation and a decrease in the rate of disaggregation of platelet aggregates formed under the experimental conditions,in vitro were observed. If this should occurin vivo, then capillary occlusion might ensue. This increased sensitivity to ADP and inability to disaggregate, was not due to any differences in the activity of the ADP-splitting enzyme systems in blood. Significant differences in the parameters were not observed when the large diabetic groups were compared with the control subjects. Contrary to some reports, an increase in platelet adhesiveness was not apparent in either diabetic group.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The administration of β,β′-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) to rats, either in five daily injections of 30 mg, or in a single injection of 100 mg/100 g body wt., resulted in the development of severe damage to the central nervous system and retinal vasculature. These changes were prevented by the daily intraperitoneal injection of 24 mg dl-ethionine/100 g body wt.Significant increases in the oxygen uptake of IDPN-treated rat brain were found when measured in the presence of succinate or glutamate as substrates. IDPN (5 mm) did not affect the oxygen uptake of brain homogenates in vitro when measured in the presence of the same substrates.The cytochrome oxidase activity of rat brain was not significantly changed by in vivo administration of IDPN, nor by the presence of 5 mm-IDPN in vitro.The lactate content of the IDPN-treated rat brain was significantly increased by the eighth day.There were no changes in the dry wt., total protein, lipid or phospholipid content of the IDPN-treated rat brain, even after 4 weeks.These findings are discussed with reference to previous experiments on the toxic action of IDPN on the central nervous system and retinal vasculature.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Streptozotocin-diabetes ; sucrose diet ; retina ; blood ; liver ; glucose ; sorbitol ; fructose
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The sorbitol, fructose and glucose content of the retina, blood and liver from normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats fed either a starch- or sucroserich diet for 15 days has been determined. The sorbitol and fructose level in the retina was much higher than that in either the liver or blood and was significantly increased in diabetes on either diet. Such increases in the sorbitol concentration did not occur in either the liver or the blood during diabetes, and the possibility that the sorbitol pathway can play an important metabolic role in the diabetic retina has been discussed. The feeding of a sucroseas opposed to a starchrich diet did not significantly alter the concentrations of glucose, sorbitol or fructose in the normal rat retina but caused a marked elevation in the diabetic state.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Human diabetic retinal vascular system ; hydroxyproline ; hexosamine ; sialic acid ; β, β′-iminodipropionitrile retinopathy ; histology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Le système vasculaire rétinien a été isolé, par digestion trypsique contrôlée, après la mort, à partir d'yeux humains de non-diabétiques et de diabétiques. L'analyse chimique a révélé l'augmentation du contenu en hydroxyproline et en hexosamine, dans le diabète. Il n'y avait pas d'augmentation générale du contenu en acide sialique. Ces résultats ont été rapprochés des préparations histologiques de portions des mêmes rétines. L'administration deβ, β′-iminodipropionitrile à des rats provoquait une rétinopathie caractérisée par une prolifération des cellules endothéliales, une PAS-positivité augmentée et des microanévrismes. L'analyse chimique des systèmes vasculaires rétiniens des rats traités par leβ,β′-iminodipropionitrile, a révélé l'augmentation du contenu en hydroxyproline, en hexosamine et en acide sialique.
    Abstract: Zusammenfassung Die Netzhautgefäße wurden post-mortal aus diabetischen und nichtdiabetischen Augen mit Hilfe einer kontrollierten Trypsin-Behandlung gewonnen. Bei der chemischen Analyse fand sich ein Anstieg des Hydroxyprolin- und Hexosamingehaltes in den diabetischen Augen. Der N-azetyl-Neuraminsäuregehalt war im allgemeinen nicht erhöht. Diese Resultate wurden in Beziehung gebracht zu den histologischen Befunden, die an den einzelnen Sektoren der gleichen Retina erhoben wurden. Verabreichung vonβ, β′-Iminodiproprionitril an Ratten bewirkte eine Retinopathie unter den Zeichen einer Wucherung der Endothelzellen, verstärkter PAS-Anfärbbarkeit und Mikroaneurysmen. Die chemische Analyse der Netzhautgefäße von mitβ, β′-Iminodiproprionitril behandelten Ratten zeigte einen erhöhten Gehalt an Hydroxyprolin, Hexosamin und N-azetyl-Neuraminsäure.
    Notes: Summary The retinal vasculature has been isolated from nondiabetic and diabetic post mortem human eyes by controlled trypsin digestion. Chemical analysis demonstrated increases in the hydroxyproline and hexosamine contents in diabetes. There was no general increase in the sialic acid content. These results have been related to histological preparations of sectors of the same retinas. Administration ofβ, β′-iminodipropionitrile to rats caused a retinopathy characterised by endothelial cell proliferation, increased PAS-positivity and microaneurysms. Chemical analysis of retinal vascular systems fromβ, β′ -iminodipropionitrile-treated rats revealed increases in hydroxyproline, hexosamine and sialic acid contents.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Air-dried soybeans absorb water rapidly for the first 2 hr followed by a slower rate of uptake. The beans take up an equal weight of water (100% hydration) after approximately 2.5 hr at 37°C to 5.5 hr at 20°C and reach complete hydration (140% hydration) after 6 hr at 37°C and 16 hr at 20°C. Soluble solids are leached out of the beans at a fairly steady rate throughout the hydration, and the amount is greater with higher temperatures. Temperature is the most important factor in determining the rate of water absorption and of solids losses. Of the total solids lost, 7–16% is protein. The proportion of protein loss increases as the soaking time and temperature increase. About 30–50% of soluble sugars, including fructose, sucrose, raffinose and stachyose, are removed from the beans after overnight soaking at 25°C. On the other hand, the amounts of trypsin inhibitor and hemagglutinin found in the soybean soak are relatively small as compared to that present in the air-dried beans. Hydrating soybeans to 100% prior to cooking reduces the cooking time, increases the tenderness and weight of the cooked beans, and improves their appearance. Complete hydration results in no further improvement in cooking rate or cooking quality of the beans.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1520-4995
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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