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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 14 (1993), S. 655-656 
    ISSN: 0925-4005
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of dermatological research 212 (1961), S. 325-364 
    ISSN: 1432-069X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Nach übersichtlicher Darstellung der in der Literatur beschriebenen Seroreaktionen zur Frühdiagnose von Krebserkrankungen werden über die von H. S. Penn und F. C. Chang entwickelte Seroflockungsreaktion mittels Gallensäurederivaten berichtet und eigene Untersuchungen mit dieser Methode mitgeteilt. Insgesamt wurden 243 Seren von Carcinomträgern, 110 Seren von Hautkrebsen und 247 Seren von Cesunden Kontrollpersonen untersucht. Folgende Ergebnisse wurden dabei erzielt: 1. Der Ausfall der Seroflockungsreaktion stimmte bei den Carcinompatienten in 74,1% und bei den Kontrollpersonen in 78% mit dem klinischen Befund überein. 2. Die Seren von Patienten mit Hautkrebsen zeigten dagegen in einem wesentlich niedrigeren Prozentsatz eine positive Flockungsreaktion. Der Hundertsatz der Übereinstimmung liegt zwischen 30 und 50. 3. Die Blutkörperchensenkungsgeschwindigkeit hat zweifellos einen Einfluß auf die Seroflockungsreaktion in dem Sinne, daß erhöhte Senkungen von Patienten ohne klinisch nachweisbare Neoplasmen zu positiven Resultaten führen. Je höher die BSG, um so höher ist die Zahl der positiven Teste. 4. Die Seroflockungsreaktion its auf Grund dieses Verhaltens unseres Erachtens keine Antigen-Antikörperreaktion, wie Chang meint, sondern ist den Eiweißlabilitätsproben zuzuordnen. 5. Für die Frühdiagnostik maligner Tumoren ist die Methode ohne größere Bedeutung, da sie meist erst dann sichere positive Ergebnisse zeitigt, wenn die Krebserkrankung schon klinisch diagnostiziert werden kann.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Although heterospecific transformation is extremely inefficient and very little heterologous donor DNA integrates into the recipient chromosome in a stable way, we have previously shown that B. pumilus DNA entering competent B. subtilis efficiently associates with the recipient chromosome in an unstable way. This association can be stabilized by photocrosslinking in the presence of 4,5′,8-trimethylpsoralen; it depends on the recombination proficiency of the recipient strain and on strand-separation of the recipient chromosome (te Riele and Venema 1982b). The present study provides further evidence that the heterologous donor DNA and the recipient DNA are associated by regions of base-pairing. Based on the high sensitivity of the donor moiety in the complex to nuclease S1 (90%) and the high sensitivity of the complex to moderate denaturing conditions (Tm=48°C), we presume that donor and recipient DNA are associated either by several short sequences of 15–25 fairly well matched base pairs or by a region of base-pairing of about 200 bases, which contains 25% of mismatches. During incubation, the unstable complex disappears, probably due to nucleolytic degradation. The unstable heterologous donor-recipient complex (DRC) was found to be membrane-bound. However, in contrast to homologous DRC, the unstable heterologous DRC remains membrane bound during incubation. Apparently, the predominantly single-stranded character of the heterologous DRC prevents release of the complex from the membrane.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Previously it was demonstrated that, in contrast to the homologous donor-recipient complex, the unstable heterologous donor-recipient complex remains bound to the cellular membrane. To examine whether proteins known to be involved in the processing of transforming DNA in Bacillus subtilis are associated with membrane fragments which carry chromosomal DNA, a crude membrane-DNA complex was subjected to electrophoresis through a sucrose gradient. This resulted in the separation of membrane fragments associated with DNA and free membrane fragments. By means of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis several proteins, either uniquely present or considerably enriched in the purified membrane-DNA complex, were detected. Among these proteins we identified the 45 kD recE gene product, required for recombination, the 18 kD binding protein involved in the binding of transforming DNA and a 17 kD nuclease involved in the entry of transforming DNA. These results suggest that the membrane sites at which donor DNA integrates into the recipient chromosome are in the vicinity of the sites of entry of donor DNA through the membrane.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-7365
    Keywords: Hepatic encephalopathy ; portosystemic encephalopathy ; benzodiazepines ; therapy ; dog ; model
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Therapeutic modulation of the increased GABAergic tone in chronic hepatic encephalopathy (HE) by the benzodiazepine receptor (BR) antagonist flumazenil (F) has led to conflicting results in humans and animal models for HE. The BR inverse agonist sarmazenil (S) has only been used in animal models of acute HE. Therefore we investigated the effects of intravenous injection of F and S in dogs with chronic HE 8 to 12 weeks after placement of a portocaval shunt and 40% hepatectomy (n=7), compared to sham-operated pair-fed controls (n=7). The HE dogs had hyperammonemia (298±48 μM v 33±3 before surgery (mean±SEM)) and signs of HE at the start of the experiments (0.9±0.1 (scale 0-4)). Three (S3) and 8 (S8) mg/kg of S resulted in a significant improvement of encephalopathy (grade 0.9±0.2 immediately before v 0.5±0.1 after injection (S3) and 0.7±0.1 v 0.3±0.1 (S8)) and increase in mean dominant frequency of the EEC (MDF; 9.1±0.7 Hz v 11.1±0.3 (S3) and 8.9±0.5 v 11.0±0.3 (S8)) in HE dogs, whereas 15 mg/kg of S, 3 and 8 mg/kg of F, and the vehicle had no significant effects. The efficacy of S in these dogs is consistent with an increased GABAergic tone in the pathogenesis of chronic HE. The lack of effects of F makes a role for endogenous benzodiazepines herein unlikely.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-7365
    Keywords: hepatic encephalopathy ; portosystemic encephalopathy ; branched-chain amino acids ; dopaminergic neurotransmission ; hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis ; diet ; dog ; model
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A decreased ratio of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to aromatic amino acids (AAA) is considered an important pathogenetic factor in hepatic encephalopathy (HE). A relationship between the deranged BCAA/AAA ratio and dopaminergic dysfunction through the formation of “false” neurotransmitters has been postulated. The intermediate lobe of the pituitary is more pronounced in dogs than in humans and because it is primarily under dopaminergic inhibitory influence, it may serve as an indicator of alterations in dopaminergic neurotransmission. We investigated the effects of a diet with a high BCAA/AAA ratio (HR) and an isonitrogenous diet with a low BCAA/AAA ratio (LR) on several physical and biochemical parameters including pituitary function in dogs with portocaval shunts and 40% hepatectomy and in sham-operated pair-fed controls, in a double-blind, randomized cross-over study. Portocaval-shunted dogs had hyperammonemia (33±3 μM (mean ± SEM) before and 214±21 after surgery)) and signs of HE. Their BCAA/AAA ratio in plasma and CSF decreased from 4.3±0.3 and 2.3±0.3 before surgery to 1.3±0.1 and 0.5±0.1 after surgery, respectively. These parameters remained unaltered in the control dogs. The consumption of the LR diet was significantly higher than consumption of the HR diet. In the portocaval-shunted dogs, plasma ammonia concentration was higher on the HR diet than on the LR diet (344±52 v 246±45) and the HE grade was worse. The BCAA /AAA ratio remained abnormal in HE dogs during the feeding of both diets. The basal and haloperidol-stimulated release of α-melanotropin and cortisol in plasma were not significantly different between or within groups during any period. In contrast, urinary cortisol excretion was increased in the HE dogs after surgery (urinary cortisol:creatinine ratio (×10−6) 8.5±1.4 before and 30.4±8.9 after surgery). The basal plasma concentration of adrenocorticotropin in HE dogs was decreased after surgery (68.3±10.2 ng/L before and 40.8±4.4 after surgery). This indicates a non-pituitary-dependent hyperresponsiveness of the adrenals. We conclude from these results that chronic HE in dogs is not associated with an abnormal dopaminergic neurotransmission at least at the level of the pituitary, and that it is not the content of the dietary neutral amino acids but rather the total protein intake that may have a beneficial effect on HE.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Contrecoup fractures ; craniocerebral trauma ; fall
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Contrecoup fractures of the base of the skull are regarded as rare in the clinical literature. In our material (n=171 falls on the same level and on or from stairs), the overall frequency of contrecoup fractures of the anterior cranial fossa in fatal cranio-cerebral trauma due to falls was 12%, as compared to 24% with occipital point of impact of the head. The relationships between the impact site on the head, form of fracture at the point of impact with involvement of the skull cap and/or the base of the skull, coup and contrecoup injuries of the brain, localization of contrecoup fractures in the anterior cranial fossa and the occurrence of monocle and spectacle haematomas display a major variability. Fractures occur in the form of simple fractures and as impression fractures (fracture fragments or fracture boundaries displaced to the inside). Clinical diagnosis is difficult because of the concealed position of the anterior skull base. Contrecoup fractures become of forensic medical significance when symptoms of a frontobasal injury occur for the first time after trauma which has occured some time in the past and when the question arises as to the causal connection with the original trauma. In investigation of living persons, it may be difficult to decide whether haemorrhages in the region of the orbit and its vicinity result from a direct blunt force or derive from fractures of the base of the skull, especially contrecoup fractures.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Psychophysiology 3 (1966), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-8986
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Conditional heart rate responses were measured for field-dependent and field-independent subjects. The conditional stimulus (CS) was a colored light and the unconditional stimulus (US) was an electric shock delivered to the finger. The CS-US interval was 10 sec. The field-independent subjects demonstrated an initial cardiac acceleration followed by a cardiac deceleration, whereas the field-dependent subjects showed only the cardiac deceleration. When these data are compared with the previously reported galvanic skin response (GSR) data, a model of sympathetic-parasympathetic reactivity is evolved wherein the field-independent group shows both conditioned sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic activity, while the field-dependent group shows only parasympathetic activity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1471-0528
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1471-0528
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Objective— To study the possible pathophysiological implications of long continued dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy.Design— Longitudinal prospective randomized study of the effects of a low sodium diet compared with unrestricted sodium intake in pregnancy.Setting— Academic Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at Sint Radboud Hospital, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.Subjects— 42 healthy nulliparous women.Intervention— A low sodium diet (20 mmol sodium daily) started in the 14th week of pregnancy and stopped after delivery.Main outcome measures— Maternal weight gain, food intake, blood pressure, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, haematocrit and birthweight.Results— Total maternal weight gain and dietary energy intake during pregnancy and weight at 1 and 6 weeks postpartum were significantly lower in the low sodium group. Blood pressure during pregnancy did not show major differences. Stroke volume and cardiac output during pregnancy were significantly lower in the low sodium group whereas systemic vascular resistance was significantly higher. Haematocrit values in the low sodium group tended to be lower during pregnancy, but were significantly lower at 1 and 6 weeks postpartum than in the unrestricted group. Placental and birthweights were not significantly different between the two groups.Conclusions— Chronic dietary sodium restriction during pregnancy is characterized by a diminished body fat accumulation and a reduction in circulating volume, due to a decrease in both plasma and red cell volume, in combination with a high systemic vascular resistance without major effects on blood pressure and birthweight.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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