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  • 1
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether asthmatic reactions and changes in tear film quality could be provoked by exposing subjects to emissions from building materials in climate chambers. Twenty asthmatics and 5 healthy controls were exposed to (1) gypsum board hung with waterborne painted wallpaper; (2) rubber floor covering; (3) nylon carpet with rubber mat; (4) particle board coated with acid-curing paint; and (5) no test materials in climate chambers for 6 h. Participants recorded symptoms by filling in questionnaires, and clinical data were evaluated by lung function measurements at intervals of 30 min to 1h, and external eye examinations before and after exposure (appearance of foam at eyelid, semi-quantitative measurements of precorneal superficial lipid layer, break-up time and epithelial damage). There was agreement between a trained panel's evaluation of perceived air quality and the participants' opinion of indoor air quality. No correlation was found between lung function measurements and exposure to the materials. However, for all materials, statistically significant changes in tear film quality were observed to varying degrees. Lipophilic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) may destabilize the lipid multilayer of the tear fluid, and this mechanism is suggested to be at least partly responsible for eye irritation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Monitoring of human reactions to the emission of formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOC) from four commonly used building materials was carried out. The building materials were: a painted gypsum board, a rubber floor, a nylon carpet, and a particle board with an acid-curing paint. The exposures were performed in climate chambers. The air quality was quantified on the decipol scale by a trained panel, measurements of formaldehyde and VOC being performed simultaneously. The irritating potency of the materials was measured by a mouse bioassay. The VOC measurements showed several malodorants and irritants. Some abundant VOC identified in the head-space analyses were absent in the climate chamber air. The rubber floor and the nylon carpet exhibited a marked increase in decipols compatible with a number of odorous VOC identified in the air. A high formaldehyde concentration (minimum 743μg/m3) was measured for the particle board coated with an acid-curing paint. This was not reflected by a corresponding relatively high decipol value but a long-lasting irritating potency was observed in the mouse bioassay. TVOC sampled on Tenax and expressed in mass per volume as well as in molar concentration, and decipol evaluation both have limitations and should be used with caution as indicators of (perceived) indoor air quality. Eye irritation expressed by means of the eye index reflecting the tear film quality index (comprised of break-up time, foam formation, thickness of the precorneal lipid layer of the tear film, and epithelial damage) was found to be insensitive to formaldehyde and a VOC mixture but sensitive to TVOC concentrations of 1–2 mg/m3. Lipophilic VOC may be the cause of reduced tear film quality by destabilization of the lipid multilayer of the tear film.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Allergy 47 (1992), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Several cell types, including mast cells, basophils, macrophages/monocytes, lymphocytes, platelets and eosinophils, may bind or contain IgE. To investigate the source of cell-associated IgE and its relation to spontaneous IgE synthesis, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from allergic and non-allergic donors were examined. Using a combination of different cell fractionation techniques and varying methods for extraction of cell-associated IgE, data were obtained indicating that monocytes constitute a major source of cell-associated IgE in human blood. The amount of cell-associated IgE in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from allergic and non-allergic donors varied more than 100-fold but correlated closely to the level of serum IgE (r = 0.84, p 〈 0.001, n= 38). Spontaneous and mitogen-induced in vitro syntheses of IgA, IgE and IgG were compared for allergic and non-allergic donors. Only one donor with very high serum IgE demonstrated spontaneous or mitogen-induced in vitro IgE synthesis despite synthesis of IgA and IgG.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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