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  • 1
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  57th Annual Meeting of the German Society for Neuropathology and Neuroanatomy (DGNN); 20120912-20120915; Erlangen; DOC12dgnnPP4.17 /20120911/
    Publication Date: 2012-09-12
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  60th Annual Meeting of the German Society for Neuropathology and Neuroanatomy (DGNN); 20150826-20150828; Berlin; DOC15dgnnP2 /20150825/
    Publication Date: 2015-08-26
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Fluorocarbon ; Extracorporeal circulation (EEC) ; Pulmonary ; systemic embolism ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary After intravenous injection of 0.1 ml Fluorocarbon (FC) into the caudal vein of rats clear droplets which are reminiscent of gas emboli appear in the pulmonary and cerebral arteries. These droplets cannot be stained with Azan, haematoxylin-eosin, Nile blue sulfate, Sudan black B, and Sudan III in Paraplast embedded or frozen sections. Gas chromatography of affected lung tissue reveals a high concentration of FC. The clear droplets are the histological correlates of FC emboli which lead to haemorrhagic lung infarction and ischaemic brain infarcts. After intralienal injection FC induces haemorrhagic infarcts of the spleen near the injection site and massive embolization of the intrahepatic portal veins with consequent liver cell necrosis. FC droplets are phagocytosed by hepatic sinusoidal lining cells. Due to the absence of a specific method for identifying FC embolization of renal vessies is difficult to assess.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Human entorhinal area ; Ageing ; Lateralitity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The total nerve cell numbers in the right and in the left human entorhinal areas have been calculated by volume estimations with the Cavalieri principle and by cell density determinations with the optical disector. Thick gallocyanin-stained serial frozen sections through the parahippocampal gyrus of 22 human subjects (10 female, 12 male) ranging from 18 to 86 years were analysed. The laminar composition of gallocyanin (Nissl)-stained sections could easily be compared with Braak's (1972, 1980) pigmentoarchitectonic study, and Braak's nomenclature of the entorhinal laminas was adopted. Cellsparse laminae dissecantes can more clearly be distinguished in Nissl than in aldehydefuchsin preparations. These cell-poor dissecantes, lamina dissecans externa (dis-ext), lamina dissecans 1 (dis-1) and lamina dissecans 2 (dis-2), were excluded from nerve cell number determinations. An exact delineation of the entorhinal area is indispensable for any kind of quantitative investigation. We have defined the entorhinal area by the presence of pre-alpha cell clusters and the deeper layers of lamina principalis externa (pre-beta and gamma) separated from lamina principalis interna (pri) by lamina dissecans 1 (dis-1). The human entorhinal area is quantitatively characterized by a left-sided (asymmetric) higher pre-alpha cell number and an age-related nerve cell loss in pre as well as pri layers. At variance with other CNS cortical and subcortical structures, the neuronal number of the entorhinal area appears to decrease continuously from the earliest stages analysed, although a secular trend has to be considered. The asymmetry in pre-alpha cell number is discussed in the context of higher human mental capabilities, especially language.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Human brain ; Thalamus ; Myeloarchitectonic ; Nerve cell number ; Optical disector
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We estimated the total neurone number, glial number, and glial index (ratio glial cells/neurone) in the thalamic mediodorsal nucleus (MD) in seven patients suffering from Huntington’s disease (HD; four males, three females, mean age 52.4 ± 13.6 years) and age- and sex-matched controls (four males, three females, mean age 53.6 ± 12.1 years) by means of a stereological protocol. The mean total neurone number (NT¯) in the MD of controls was 2,985,188 ± 174,710, the mean glial number (GT¯; astrocytes, oligodendrocytes) 21,785,008 ± 2,986,678, and the glial index 7.29 ± 0.88. In HD, the average neurone number was decreased by 23.8% to 2,275,321 ± 247,162 (Mann-Whitney U-test P 〈 0.05), the mean glial number by 29.7 % to 15,318,895 ± 1,722,524 (Mann-Whitney U-test P 〈 0.05), the glial index was slightly reduced to 6.81 ± 1.06. Gallyas’ impregnation for the demonstration of fibrous astroglia gave strongly positive results in all cases with HD and negative results in the controls. The morpho-functional correlation of the results is complicated because individual variability, presence of segregated and parallel neuronal circuits, and plasticity of the adult human CNS must be considered.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Cerebellum ; Albino rat ; Ontogeny ; Quantitative anatomy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The quantitative postnatal changes of the cerebella of 65 Wistar rats aged 2–120 days have been examined. The cerebellar volume increases in two phases: The first phase lasts from birth to the seventh postnatal week. The second phase begins ten weeks post partum and lasts for a longer period than the first phase. The cerebellar surface increases continuously from birth to the end of the seventh week. The volume of the external granular layer is maximal when the organ grows rapidly. The external granular layer has nearly disappeared 24 days after birth; the volume of the internal granular layer is maximal at this time. Later on, the volume and the width of the internal granular layer decrease. Myelinization of the cerebellar fibers and growth of the molecular layer run parallel to this decrease. The second late, but protracted growth of the cerebellum, ten weeks after birth, is due to an increase of the molecular and medullary layer. These findigns are in good accord with histological, histochemical, and ultrastructural observations of other authors.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Anatomy and embryology 154 (1978), S. 285-304 
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Cerebellum ; Albino rat ; Postnatal growth ; Quantitative investigations
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The postnatal quantitative changes in cell diameter, cell density and total number of granule cells in the sublobule IXa of female rats from 6 to 760 days old were examined. There occurs and initial rapid increase in cell density from 1232.00±91.92 granule cells per 10-3 mm3 to 2995.50±322.07 granule cells per 10-3 mm3 and from 3 135 316±233 937 to more than 24 millions of granule cells between the 6th and 25th postnatal day. After the middle of the 3rd postnatal week, cell density and total number of granule cells decrease. The diameter of the granule cells reaches a maximum at the 6th day post partum and decreases continuously with progressing age. The possible mechanisms of these quantitative changes are discussed.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Anatomy and embryology 155 (1979), S. 333-345 
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Lipofuscin ; Cerebellar cortex ; Ultrastructure ; Senescent rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The ultrastructure of autofluorescent, PAS-positive lipofuscin in Purkinje, granule, Golgi epithelial, basket and stellate, microglial and perivascular cells in the cerebellar cortex of senescent rats is described. The membrane-bounded pigment is composed of three elements: 1) electron-lucent homogeneous droplets, 2) a granular matrix and 3) intensely osmiophilic patches. The proportions of these three components vary between cell types and one can grossly differentiate a neuronal and a glial lipofuscin. The lipofuscin granules of stellate and perivscular cells are different from lipofuscin of other cerebellar neurons and glia. It can be concluded from these morphological observations that each cerebellar cell type has its distinct lipofuscin.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Anatomy and embryology 161 (1981), S. 453-464 
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Lipofuscin ; Purkinje cells ; Pigmentarchitectonics ; Senile rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The distribution of lipofuscin in the perikarya of Purkinje cells of vermal and hemispheric lobules has been determined quantitatively in 7 rats, 30–38 months old, by the point-counting method. On the basis of morphologically and statistically significant differences a pigmentarchitectonics of the cerebellar cortex is established. The Purkinje cells of lobule VIa (Larsell 1952) are extremely lipofuscin-rich. The Purkinje cells of the hemispheres, lobules V, VI b+c and VII contain considerable amounts of a finely granular lipofuscin, the Purkinje cells of lobules I–III and VIII–IX a a globular type of lipofuscin. The Purkinje cells of sublobule XI d c and X are lipofuscin-poor cells. Three types of lipofuscin have been identified in the light microscope.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Huntington's disease ; Human cerebral cortex ; Striatum ; Neurone number ; Stereology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The total cortical and striatal neurone and glial numbers were estimated in five cases of Huntington's disease (three males, two females) and five age- and sex-matched control cases. Serial 500-μm-thick gallocyanin-stained frontal sections through the left hemisphere were analysed using Cavalieri's principle for volume and the optical disector for cell density estimations. The average cortical neurone number of five controls (mean age 53±13 years, range 36 – 72 years) was 5.97×109±320×106, the average number of small striatal neurones was 82×106±15.8×106. The left striatum (caudatum, putamen, and accumbens) contained a mean of 273×106±53×106 glial cells (oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and unclassifiable glial profiles). The mean cortical neurone number in Huntington's disease patients (mean age 49±14 years, range 36 – 75 years) was diminished by about 33  % to 3.99×109±218×106 nerve cells (P≤ 0.012, Mann-Whitney U-test). The mean number of small striatal neurones decreased tremendously to 9.72 × 106± 3.64×106 ( – 88  %). The decrease in total glial cells was less pronounced (193 × 106±26 × 106) but the mean glial index, the numerical ratio of glial cells per neurone, increased from 3.35 to 22.59 in Huntington's disease. Qualitatively, neuronal loss was most pronounced in supragranular layers of primary sensory areas (Brodmann's areae 3,1,2; area 17, area 41). Layer IIIc pyramidal cells were preferentially lost in association areas of the temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes, whereas spared layer IV granule cells formed a conspicuous band between layer III and V in these fields. Methodological issues are discussed in context with previous investigations and similarities and differences of laminar and lobar nerve cell loss in Huntington's disease are compared with nerve cell degeneration in other neuropsychiatric diseases.
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