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  • 1
    Call number: WL141:32
    Keywords: Brain / radionuclide imaging ; Tomography, Emission-Computed
    Notes: Parallel text and table of contents in English and German.
    Pages: ix, 130 p. : ill.
    ISBN: 9780387156361
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1433-0407
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Pinealismischtumoren ; Sezernierende Keimzelltumoren ; β-HCG ; AFP ; Chemotherapie ; Key words Pinealoma ; Secreting germ cell tumors ; Primary intracranial germ cell tumors ; Tumor markers β-HCG and AFP ; Polychemotherapy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary
    Notes: Zusammenfassung
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1433-0407
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Positronen-Emissions-Tomographie (PET) ; Neurologie ; Neurochirurgie ; Psychiatrie ; Key words Positron emission tomography ; Neurology ; Neurosurgery ; Psychiatry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary To date, positron emission tomography (PET) is the most powerful method for the in-vivo investigation of human brain metabolism. Besides extensive application of this technology in the neurosciences, PET is also being increasingly used as a clinical tool. However, despite its acceptance in clinical practice, a major obstacle is its high costs. The present article reviews the literature on the clinical use of PET in neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry in order to substantiate the clinical indications for PET in these specialties as established by an interdisciplinary conference.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Die Positronen-Emissions-Tomographie (PET) ist das derzeit leistungsfähigste Verfahren zur In-vivo-Untersuchung des zerebralen Stoffwechsels. Neben einem breitgefächerten Einsatz von PET in der neuromedizinischen Forschung findet die PET zunehmend auch Eingang in die klinische Diagnostik. Dieser Entwicklung entgegen stehen die relativ hohen Kosten, die mit diesem Verfahren verbunden sind. Die vorliegende Arbeit begründet die, in einer interdisziplinären Konferenz erarbeiteten Konsensusindikationen für den klinischen Einsatz der PET in der Neurologie, Neurochirurgie und Psychiatrie durch Aufarbeitung der einschlägigen Literatur.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1433-0407
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter PET ; SPECT ; DOPA-Aufnahme ; D2-Rezeptoren ; Energiestoffwechsel ; M. Parkinson ; Multisystemdegeneration ; Key words PET ; SPECT ; DOPA-uptake ; D2-receptors ; Energy metabolism ; Parkinson’s disease ; Multi system degeneration
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Modalities for imaging morphology do not contribute significantly to the differential diagnosis of movement disorders. In contrast, functional imaging as PET or SPECT can differentiate among Parkinson’s disease (PD), vascular or toxic Parkinsonism and movement disorders within multi system degeneration. Especially the decreased DOPA uptake – detected by 18F-DOPA or 123I-βCIT – within the striate with accentuation in the posterior putamen is typical for PD, where initially D2-receptor activity – imaged by 11C-raclopride or 123I-iodobenzamide – is increased. In contrast to this typical pattern dopaminergic terminals as well as D2-receptors are diffusely reduced in multi system degeneration, where often energy metabolism is additionally disturbed. In Parkinson syndrome of vascular origin focal disturbances of pre- and postsynaptic dopaminergic sites and energy metabolism are found, movement disorders after intoxication are accompanied by selective loss of dopaminergic neurons (MPTP) or by widespread neuronal damage in the basal ganglia as well as in the cortex (Cyanide, solvents). Functional studies additionally permit the follow-up of disease progression, by which also the efficacy of therapeutic strategies can be assessed.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Während bildgebende Verfahren zur Darstellung der Morphologie (CT und MRT) üblicherweise zur Diagnose degenerativer Erkrankungen wenig beitragen können, erlauben funktionelle Untersuchungen wie PET und SPECT, eine Differenzierung zwischen idiopathischem Morbus Parkinson, toxischen und vaskulären Parkinson-Syndromen und extrapyramidalen Syndromen im Rahmen von Multisystemdegenerationen. Insbesondere die verminderte DOPA-Aufnahme – durch 18F-DOPA bzw. 123I-βCIT – im Striatum mit Betonung im hinteren Putamen ist typisch für die idiopathische Form, bei der anfänglich die Aktivität von D2-Rezeptoren gesteigert (Up-Regulation) – nachzuweisen z.B. durch 11C-Racloprid oder 123I-Iodobenzamid – ist. Im Gegensatz dazu sind bei Multisystemdegenerationen sowohl dopaminerge Endigungen als auch D2-Rezeptoren diffus vermindert und zusätzlich häufig der Energiestoffwechsel beeinträchtigt. Bei Parkinson-Syndromen vaskulärer Genese zeigen sich umschriebene Veränderungen am prä- und postsynaptischen dopaminergen System sowie im Energiestoffwechsel, toxisch bedingte extrapyramidale Störungen gehen mit selektivem Ausfall der dopaminergen Neurone (MPTP) oder mit ausgedehnten Nervenzellverlusten in Basalganglien und Hirnrinde (Cyanid, Lösungsmittel) einher. Die funktionellen Studien erlauben zusätzlich Aussagen über die Progression der Erkrankung, wodurch auch Therapieeffekte objektiviert werden können.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Experimental MCA-occlusion ; Chronic infarction ; rCBF ; Border zone ; Neuronal loss
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The border of a chronic infarct is sharply demarcated. We found in our investigation, however, that this is merely a macroscopic diagnosis and does not say anything about the structure of the tissue and the content of morphologically preserved neurons in the marginal zones. In six cats the left cerebral artery was permanently occluded. Eight weeks later the animals were killed and autoradiographic investigations were conducted on cryostat sections to determine rCBF. Adjacent to every 20-μm section, a 10-μm HE section was prepared. Preserved nerve cells were counted in several areas of the cortex in a symmetric fashion in both the infarcted and the contralateral side in the identical regions where rCBF had been measured in the preceding section. Two additional non-ischemic cat brains served as controls, which were investigated in the same manner as described above. A marked loss of neurons was observed in the border zone of the infarct. Only occasionally preserved ganglion cells were seen in each cortical layer. Even in areas one gyrus distant to the margin of the infact the number of neurons was still reduced by one third as compared to the contralateral side. Starting only with the lateral gyrus the number of ganglionic cells was found to be equal on both sides.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die Wirkung anuneoplastisdier Behandlung auf Gliome ist abhängig von der Tumorzeil- und Proliferationskinetik, der Gliomarchitektur und dem umgebenden Hirngewebe. Durch Strahlen- und Chemotherapie induzierte morphologische Veränderungen sind gekennzeichnet durch Zellnekrosen sowie schwere Zell- und Kernschäden durch Eingriffe in die Zellkinetik, doch können diese auch spontan in unbehandelten anaplastischen Gliomen auftreten. Vergleichsuntersuchungen von zytologischen Abstrichen und histologischen Routinepräparaten an Biopsie- und Autopsiematerial von 4 Gruppen anaplastischer Astrozytome und Glioblastome (78 Fälle) wurden nach postoperativer Strahlenbehandlung, Polychemotherapie und CCNU-Behandlung sowie ohne spezifische postoperative Therapie (Kontrollgruppe) vorgenommen. Nach Strahlen- und Chemotherapie fanden sich neben gesteigerter Nekrose und Gefäßreaktion verschiedene charakteristische, aber unspezifische Zell- und Kernveränderungen mit gesteigerter Neigung zur Bildung vielkerniger Riesen- und Monsterzellen, Kernhyperchromasie sowie schwerer Zytoplasmadegeneration als Hinweise auf Mitosestörungen und Zellschädigung. Nach antineoplastischer Therapie fand sich eine statistisch signifikante Zunahme von Riesen- und vielkernigen Monsterzellen sowie Abnahme der Mitosen, wobei diese Veränderungen nach Chemotherapie stärker ausgeprägt waren als nach Bestrahlung. Zwischen Polychemo- und CCNU-Behandlung ergaben sich keine wesentlichen Abweichungen. Die Bedeutung dieser zytologischen Spätbefunde auf die Effekte antineoplastischer Behandlung anaplastischer Gliome wird diskutiert.
    Notes: Summary The effects of antineoplastic treatment on gliomas are related to tumour cell cycle and proliferation kinetics, glioma tissue architecture, and the surrounding environment. Morphological changes induced by radiation and chemotherapy are characterized by cell necrosis and severe alterations in cell and nuclear morphology caused by changes in the cell kinetic parameters which, however, may also occur spontaneously in untreated anaplastic gliomas. Comparative studies of cytological imprints and routine histological preparations of biopsy and autopsy specimens were performed in four groups of anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas (78 cases) with postsurgical irradiation, combination chemotherapy, and CCNU treatment, and without specific postsurgical treatment (control group). Following radiation and chemotherapy, in addition to increased necrosis and vascular response, a variety of characteristic but nonspecific changes were observed in cell and nuclear morphology with prominent formation of multinucleated giant and monstrous cells, irregular and hyperchromatic nuclei, and severe cytoplasmic degeneration indicating both inhibition of cell division and cell damage. Statistically significant findings were a posttreatment increase in the number of multinucleated giant and monstrous cells and a decrease in the number of mitoses. These changes were more pronounced after chemotherapy than after radiation, while no significant dissimilarities were found between combination chemotherapy and CCNU. The implications of these changes on the mechanisms of antitumour treatment in anaplastic gliomas are discussed.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Alzheimer's disease ; Regional cerebral ; glucose metabolism ; Semiquantitative neuropathology ; Neurofibrillary tangles ; Senile plaques
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In four patients with an antemortem diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRGl) was studied prospectively by positron emission tomography (PET) and compared with postmortem semiquantitative neuropathology. The interval between the last PET study and autopsy was 1.3±0.8 years. In comparison with age-matched controls, the AD patients showed predominant temporoparietal hypometabolism spreading to other cortical and subcortical regions during serial PET scans. All patients had neuropathological findings typical for AD. There was a significant relationship between rCMRGl and density of senile plaques (SP) in one patient (τb = –0.86, P 〈 0.05). SP were distributed quite homogeneously in all regions examined. Neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) were concentrated focally in the hippocampus-amygdala-entorhinal complex. In the context of widespread developing cortical hypometabolism, the predilection of NFT for involvement in limbic areas suggests a disruption of projection neurons as the pathogenetic process of cortical dysfunction.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0770
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Physics
    Notes: Summary The maintained activities of 116 neurons of the cat's optic nerve were recorded on tape. Non-sequential interval histograms were computed; in 29 neurons a multimodal type was observed. The peaks were regularly spaced corresponding to a fundamental period of 20–35 msec. Similar interval histograms were found also during constant illumination and under the influence of strychnine and picrotoxin. In the same neuron the interval histogram may alternate between a unimodal and a multimodal type. The discussion is based on the assumption of two interacting generators differing with respect to their characteristics.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0711
    Keywords: Eclampsia complications ; Subdural effusion ; Meningeal thickening ; focal seizures ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A 32-year-old primigravida showed signs of pre-eclampsia before delivery of a healthy boy at term. The CSF-space was accidentally punctured during epidural anaesthesia in labour. One day later hypertension was noted and the patient had a single generalized fit. For the next three weeks she had postural headaches, fluctuating hypertension, intermittent hearing loss and doublevision. On the 22nd day of postpartum, the patient had the first of a series of partial and later generalized seizures, followed by hemiparesis, alteration of consciousness, and finally slow recovery with corticosteroid therapy. Bilateral subdural effusions and generalized meningeal thickening were found on MR scans. Repeated MRI excluded sinus thrombosis and documented the response to treatment.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    The European physical journal 179 (1964), S. 256-263 
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The angular distribution for fast photoneutrons is calculated for nuclei in the region 50〈A〈200 by assuming the direct process. The experimental dependence of the angular distribution on the neutron number can be understood by the influence of the spin-orbit coupling on the radial integrals.
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