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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Fixation and embedding variables were compared in immuno-electron microscopic localization of rat IgG in an autologous immune complextype nephritis. Specimens from kidney cortex were fixed for 3, 6 or 9 h in the following fixatives made in 0.1 M phosphate buffer at pH 7.4∶4% paraformaldehyde, 2.5% glutaraldehyde, periodate-lysine-paraformaldehyde or modified Karnovsky's fixative. Localization of IgG was performed on tissue sections cut with a tissue chopper, cryostat or sliding microtome, using agarose, Ames O.C.T. Compound or polyethylene glycol respectively as cutting matrixes. The sections were incubated in peroxidase-labelled antirat IgG antiserum (diluted 1∶20 with phosphate-buffered saline) for 60 h. Peroxidase activity was then revealed and the sections embedded in Epon. Exact localization of IgG throughout the sections and good ultrastructure were achieved when paraformaldehyde and agarose were used. Periodate-lysine-paraformaldehyde proved almost as useful as paraformaldehyde in connection with agarose in respect of peroxidase reaction and ultrastructure. Fixatives containing glutaraldehyde gave a mostly weak and unevenly distributed peroxidase reaction product. In the cryostat sections breaking of the tissue structure could not be avoided. When polyethylene glycol was used as cutting matrix no peroxidase reaction was achieved.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2218
    Keywords: Key words: Ultrasonography — Laparoscopy — Ovarian tumor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: Most surgery for benign ovarian mass is now performed laparoscopically. Our purpose was to evaluate the usefulness of laparoscopic ultrasonography (LUS) in these operations. Methods: Forty patients treated by laparoscopic extirpation of a benign ovarian tumor were examined perioperatively using an Aloka 7.5-MHz laparoscopic probe. Findings of preoperative vaginal and perioperative laparoscopic ultrasonography were compared with histologic diagnoses. The accuracy of LUS in localizing the tumor in the ovary and ensuring surgical radicalness was evaluated. Results: LUS enabled correct diagnosis in 34/40 and vaginal ultrasonography in 27/40 cases. Localization of the tumor was possible by LUS in all and visually in 21 ovaries. In 2 patients a radical tumor extirpation was not possible without laparoscopic ultrasonographic guidance. Conclusions: Diagnostic accuracy in LUS is better than in vaginal ultrasonography. LUS facilitates exact tumor localization and can be useful in confirming the radicalness of operation.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Pancreatitis ; Human pancreatitis ; Acute necrotizing pancreatitis ; Acinar cells ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Ultrastructural alterations in pancreatic acini from six patients operated for acute necrotizing pancreatitis are described. One of the patients suffered from biliary tract disease, the rest had excessive alcohol intake as the presumed aetiology. Areas of the pancreatic parenchyma showing oedematous inflammation in light microscopy were studied in the electron microscope. Findings in acinar cells included changes in zymogen granules and an increased autophagocytosis in addition to unspecific organelle alterations. Zymogen granules showed increase in size and number, loss or variation of electron-density and peripheral dissolution. Increased autophagic activity was indicated by several autophagic vacuoles and residual bodies. Acinar lumina were dilated showing effacement of microvilli and invaginations in the luminal plasma membrane of the acinar cells. In acinar lumina and in the interstitium fibrillar material was observed, with an increasing frequency in those areas showing severe cellular disintegration. These findings suggest: 1) an increased activity of zymogen granules, 2) an increased autophagocytosis, and 3) penetration of acinar luminal contents into the interstitium.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Keywords: Schwannoma; neurofibromatosis 2; comparative genomic hybridization.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary ¶ Background. Schwannomas occur sporadically or in association with neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2), an autosomal dominant disorder, which predisposes to multiple schwannomas, meningiomas and spinal ependymomas, with bilateral vestibular schwannomas as the classic hallmark. As NF2 and sporadic schwannomas differ in some respect in their clinical and biological behavior we evaluated whether there are any differences in the distribution of genetic aberrations between NF2 and sporadic schwannomas. Our interest was also to verify whether secondary genetic alterations besides the loss of 22q could be detected in schwannomas.  Methods. We investigated DNA copy number changes in 25 schwannomas (12 NF2 and 13 sporadic schwannomas) using the comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) technique. Some chromosomal regions were further studied by LOH or FISH analysis.  Findings. CGH detected genomic abnormalities in 15 of 25 schwannomas (60%). The most common alteration was loss on 22q, found in 32% (8/25) of schwannomas. No consistent changes were detected in other chromosomal regions. The overall number of genetic aberrations was similar in NF2 and in sporadic schwannomas.  Interpretation. Our results support the present view that loss of chromosome 22q harboring the NF2 gene plays a universal role in the pathogenesis of schwannomas without consistent involvement of other chromosomal regions.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1335
    Keywords: Estrogen receptor ; Progesterone receptor ; Immunohistochemistry ; Breast cancer
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Human breast carcinomas were evaluated for estrogen and progesterone receptors by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal anti-receptor antibodies (n=267) and by cytosol steroid-binding assays (n=212). The estrogen and progesterone receptor contents of the tumors correlated with histological features of differentiation, such as histological and nuclear grade, and with the amount of tumor necrosis and lymphoid infiltration. The correlation of immunohistochemically determined steroid receptor values with histological characteristics was somewhat better than that of biochemically assessed concentrations.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-6865
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Immunocytochemistry using the monoclonal antibody Ki-67 is a commonly used method to assess proliferative activity of malignant tumours. Ki-67 reacts with proliferating cells with an antigen, whose structure, function and exact locations are unknown. We studed the subcellular location of Ki-67 in MCF-7 cells using immunoelectron microscopy. In the interphase cells, Ki-67 immunoreactivity was localized in the nucleolus, mainly in the nucleolar cortex. In particular areas of the granular component of the nucleolus were strongly stained. Weak spot-like nucleoplasmic immunostaining was also seen outside the nucleolus. During prophase Ki-67 antigen was localized on the surfaces of the condensed chromatin and during metaphase on the surface of the chromosomes. After cell division and prior to formation of new nucleoli, Ki-67 immunoreactivity was located in the nucleoplasm. Quantification of Ki-67 immunofluorescence signal by flow cytometry revealed highest Ki-67 levels in mitotic cells. The localtion of Ki-67 is very similar to certain recently described proteins of nucleolar preribosomes suggesting that Ki-67 may also be a component of the preribosomes.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; estrogen receptor ; progesterone receptor ; menopausal status ; immunocytochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Breast cancer tissue from 190 patients was studied for immunocytochemically reactive estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER, PR). Parallel cytosol ER and PR assays were performed on 159 of these patients using the dextran-coated charcoal (DCC) method. For the immunocytochemical determination, monoclonal antibodies to ER (ER-ICA kit) and PR were used in an immunoperoxidase procedure. Agreement between the two techniques in postmenopausal patients was better than in the premenopausal group (ER, kappa = 0.597 vs. 0.398; PR, kappa = 0.460 vs. 0.329). The median ER cytosol concentration in receptor-positive postmenopausal patients was significantly higher than in receptor-positive premenopausal patients (87 vs. 31 fmol/mg cytosol protein, p〈0.001). A similar trend was also found in the immunocytochemical ER assay (270 vs. 207 histoscore units, p〉0.05). Significantly higher cytosol ER contents were found in patients with low serum estradiol concentration. The proportion of ER-negative tumors was slightly higher in the premenopausal patients by both methods. In the PR assays (biochemical or immunocytochemical) there were no significant differences between the two patient groups in the proportion of PR-negative tumors or in the median PR content in PR-positive tumors.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1434-9949
    Keywords: Key words:Amyloidosis – Ankylosing spondylitis – Juvenile chronic arthritis – Psoriatic arthritis – Rheumatoid arthritis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: We studied whether the high incidence of secondary amyloidosis (SA) is a consistent finding in patients with inflammatory joint disease. A total of 4508 biopsies of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis were studied at the Rheumatism Foundation Hospital during 1987–1997. The results show that the annual number of findings of SA was reduced from 68 to less than 10. We suggest that a change in medication towards more frequent use of cytostatic agents is the reason for the reduction in incidence of SA.
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