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  • 1
    Keywords: LUNG-CANCER ; DISEASE ; ENZYMES ; CLEAVAGE ; BETA-CAROTENE ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; VITAMIN-A ; pooled analysis ; MENDELIAN RANDOMIZATION ; 15,15-MONOOXYGENASE
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Dietary and circulating carotenoids have been inversely associated with breast cancer risk, but observed associations may be due to confounding. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 (BCMO1), a gene encoding the enzyme involved in the first step of synthesizing vitamin A from dietary carotenoids, have been associated with circulating carotenoid concentrations and may serve as unconfounded surrogates for those biomarkers. We determined associations between variants in BCMO1 and breast cancer risk in a large cohort consortium. METHODS: We used unconditional logistic regression to test four SNPs in BCMO1 for associations with breast cancer risk in 9,226 cases and 10,420 controls from the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). We also tested weighted multi-SNP scores composed of the two SNPs with strong, confirmed associations with circulating carotenoid concentrations. RESULTS: Neither the individual SNPs nor the weighted multi-SNP scores were associated with breast cancer risk [OR (95% confidence interval) comparing extreme quintiles of weighted multi-SNP scores = 1.04 (0.94-1.16) for beta-carotene, 1.08 (0.98-1.20) for alpha-carotene, 1.04 (0.94-1.16) for beta-cryptoxanthin, 0.95 (0.87-1.05) for lutein/zeaxanthin, and 0.92 (0.83-1.02) for retinol]. Furthermore, no associations were observed when stratifying by estrogen receptor status, but power was limited. CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not support an association between SNPs associated with circulating carotenoid concentrations and breast cancer risk. Impact: Future studies will need additional genetic surrogates and/or sample sizes at least three times larger to contribute evidence of a causal link between carotenoids and breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 22(5); 927-36. (c)2013 AACR.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23515144
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  • 2
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; EXPRESSION ; tumor ; THERAPY ; RISK ; BREAST ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; FACTOR-I ; BINDING PROTEIN-3 ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION
    Abstract: Background The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway has been implicated in prostate cancer (PCa) initiation, but its role in progression remains unknown. Methods Among 5887 PCa patients (704 PCa deaths) of European ancestry from seven cohorts in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium, we conducted Cox kernel machine pathway analysis to evaluate whether 530 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 26 IGF pathway-related genes were collectively associated with PCa mortality. We also conducted SNP-specific analysis using stratified Cox models adjusting for multiple testing. In 2424 patients (313 PCa deaths), we evaluated the association of prediagnostic circulating IGF1 and IGFBP3 levels and PCa mortality. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results The IGF signaling pathway was associated with PCa mortality (P = .03), and IGF2-AS and SSTR2 were the main contributors (both P = .04). In SNP-specific analysis, 36 SNPs were associated with PCa mortality with P-trend less than .05, but only three SNPs in the IGF2-AS remained statistically significant after gene-based corrections. Two were in linkage disequilibrium (r(2) = 1 for rs1004446 and rs3741211), whereas the third, rs4366464, was independent (r(2) = 0.03). The hazard ratios (HRs) per each additional risk allele were 1.19 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06 to 1.34; P-trend = .003) for rs3741211 and 1.44 (95% CI = 1.20 to 1.73; P-trend 〈 .001) for rs4366464. rs4366464 remained statistically significant after correction for all SNPs (P-trend.corr =.04). Prediagnostic IGF1 (HRhighest vs lowest quartile = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.48 to 1.04) and IGFBP3 (HR = 0.93; 95% CI = 0.65 to 1.34) levels were not associated with PCa mortality. Conclusions The IGF signaling pathway, primarily IGF2-AS and SSTR2 genes, may be important in PCa survival.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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  • 3
    Keywords: COLON-CANCER ; microsatellite instability ; POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE ; ULCERATIVE-COLITIS ; CROHNS-DISEASE ; susceptibility loci ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; ISLAND METHYLATOR PHENOTYPE ; MOLECULAR-FEATURES ; MAIT CELLS
    Abstract: We identified the minor allele (T) in SNP rs11676348 to have pleiotropic effect on risk of UC and CRC, particularly in tumors with an inflammatory component. Our findings offer the promise of risk stratification of UC patients for developing CRC.Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have separately identified many genetic susceptibility loci for ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn's disease (CD) and colorectal cancer (CRC), there has been no large-scale examination for pleiotropy, or shared genetic susceptibility, for these conditions. We used logistic regression modeling to examine the associations of 181 UC and CD susceptibility variants previously identified by GWAS with risk of CRC using data from the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and the Colon Cancer Family Registry. We also examined associations of significant variants with clinical and molecular characteristics in a subset of the studies. Among 11794 CRC cases and 14190 controls, rs11676348, the susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) for UC, was significantly associated with reduced risk of CRC (P = 7E-05). The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio of CRC with each copy of the T allele was 0.93 (95% CI 0.89-0.96). The association of the SNP with risk of CRC differed according to mucinous histological features (P (heterogeneity) = 0.008). In addition, the (T) allele was associated with lower risk of tumors with Crohn's-like reaction but not tumors without such immune infiltrate (P (heterogeneity) = 0.02) and microsatellite instability-high (MSI-high) but not microsatellite stable or MSI-low tumors (P (heterogeneity) = 0.03). The minor allele (T) in SNP rs11676348, located downstream from CXCR2 that has been implicated in CRC progression, is associated with a lower risk of CRC, particularly tumors with a mucinous component, Crohn's-like reaction and MSI-high. Our findings offer the promise of risk stratification of inflammatory bowel disease patients for complications such as CRC.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26071399
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  • 4
    Keywords: carcinoma ; WOMEN ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; CLINICAL-SIGNIFICANCE ; susceptibility loci ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; CONFER SUSCEPTIBILITY ; COMMON VARIANTS ; COHORT CONSORTIUM ; IDENTIFIES 2
    Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer in situ (BCIS) diagnoses, a precursor lesion for invasive breast cancer, comprise about 20 % of all breast cancers (BC) in countries with screening programs. Family history of BC is considered one of the strongest risk factors for BCIS. METHODS: To evaluate the association of BC susceptibility loci with BCIS risk, we genotyped 39 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), associated with risk of invasive BC, in 1317 BCIS cases, 10,645 invasive BC cases, and 14,006 healthy controls in the National Cancer Institute's Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). Using unconditional logistic regression models adjusted for age and study, we estimated the association of SNPs with BCIS using two different comparison groups: healthy controls and invasive BC subjects to investigate whether BCIS and BC share a common genetic profile. RESULTS: We found that five SNPs (CDKN2BAS-rs1011970, FGFR2-rs3750817, FGFR2-rs2981582, TNRC9-rs3803662, 5p12-rs10941679) were significantly associated with BCIS risk (P value adjusted for multiple comparisons 〈0.0016). Comparing invasive BC and BCIS, the largest difference was for CDKN2BAS-rs1011970, which showed a positive association with BCIS (OR = 1.24, 95 % CI: 1.11-1.38, P = 1.27 x 10(-4)) and no association with invasive BC (OR = 1.03, 95 % CI: 0.99-1.07, P = 0.06), with a P value for case-case comparison of 0.006. Subgroup analyses investigating associations with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) found similar associations, albeit less significant (OR = 1.25, 95 % CI: 1.09-1.42, P = 1.07 x 10(-3)). Additional risk analyses showed significant associations with invasive disease at the 0.05 level for 28 of the alleles and the OR estimates were consistent with those reported by other studies. CONCLUSIONS: Our study adds to the knowledge that several of the known BC susceptibility loci are risk factors for both BCIS and invasive BC, with the possible exception of rs1011970, a putatively functional SNP situated in the CDKN2BAS gene that may be a specific BCIS susceptibility locus.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26070784
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  • 5
    Keywords: ASSOCIATION
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: ABO blood group has been associated with risk of cancers of the pancreas, stomach, ovary, kidney, and skin, but has not been evaluated in relation to risk of aggressive prostate cancer. METHODS: We used three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs8176746, rs505922, and rs8176704) to determine ABO genotype in 2,774 aggressive prostate cancer cases and 4,443 controls from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate age and study-adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between blood type, genotype, and risk of aggressive prostate cancer (Gleason score 〉/=8 or locally advanced/metastatic disease (stage T3/T4/N1/M1). RESULTS: We found no association between ABO blood type and risk of aggressive prostate cancer (Type A: OR = 0.97, 95%CI = 0.87-1.08; Type B: OR = 0.92, 95%CI =n0.77-1.09; Type AB: OR = 1.25, 95%CI = 0.98-1.59, compared to Type O, respectively). Similarly, there was no association between "dose" of A or B alleles and aggressive prostate cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: ABO blood type was not associated with risk of aggressive prostate cancer. Prostate 75:1677-1681, 2015. (c) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26268879
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  • 6
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Inflammation has been hypothesized to increase the risk of cancer development as an initiator or promoter, yet no large-scale study of inherited variation across cancer sites has been conducted. METHODS: We conducted a cross-cancer genomic analysis for the inflammation pathway based on 48 genome-wide association studies within the National Cancer Institute GAME-ON Network across five common cancer sites, with a total of 64 591 cancer patients and 74 467 control patients. Subset-based meta-analysis was used to account for possible disease heterogeneity, and hierarchical modeling was employed to estimate the effect of the subcomponents within the inflammation pathway. The network was visualized by enrichment map. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: We identified three pleiotropic loci within the inflammation pathway, including one novel locus in Ch12q24 encoding SH2B3 (rs3184504), which reached GWAS significance with a P value of 1.78 x 10(-8), and it showed an association with lung cancer (P = 2.01 x 10(-6)), colorectal cancer (GECCO P = 6.72x10(-6); CORECT P = 3.32x10(-5)), and breast cancer (P = .009). We also identified five key subpathway components with genetic variants that are relevant for the risk of these five cancer sites: inflammatory response for colorectal cancer (P = .006), inflammation related cell cycle gene for lung cancer (P = 1.35x10(-6)), and activation of immune response for ovarian cancer (P = .009). In addition, sequence variations in immune system development played a role in breast cancer etiology (P = .001) and innate immune response was involved in the risk of both colorectal (P = .022) and ovarian cancer (P = .003). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variations in inflammation and its related subpathway components are keys to the development of lung, colorectal, ovary, and breast cancer, including SH2B3, which is associated with lung, colorectal, and breast cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26319099
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  • 7
    Keywords: CANCER ; GROWTH ; GROWTH-FACTOR ; BLOOD ; MODEL ; MODELS ; PROSTATE ; COHORT ; cohort study ; incidence ; SITE ; SITES ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; SAMPLE ; INDEX ; BINDING ; ASSOCIATION ; BREAST ; BREAST-CANCER ; NO ; PLASMA ; AGE ; etiology ; OBESITY ; prostate cancer ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; RATES ; DIETARY ; SERIES ; BODY ; nutrition ; FACTOR-I ; TRENDS ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; BINDING PROTEIN ; leptin ; insulin ; MASS INDEX ; MASSES ; BODIES ; IGF-I ; ONCOLOGY ; BINDING-PROTEIN ; REGRESSION ; ASSOCIATIONS ; secretion ; MENSTRUAL-CYCLE ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; interaction ; LEVEL ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; FACTOR (IGF)-I ; PLASMA-LEVELS ; USA ; CANCER INCIDENCE ; correlation ; female ; Male ; JAPANESE ; CANCER-RISK ; C-PEPTIDE ; IGFBP-1 ; MULTIETHNIC COHORT ; colorectal ; correlates ; BODY-MASS ; BODY-MASS-INDEX ; BINDING PROTEIN-1 ; FACTOR BINDING PROTEIN-1 ; FACTOR-BINDING ; SERUM LEPTIN
    Abstract: Circulating insulin-like growth factor binding protein I (IGFBP-1), leptin, and insulin are 3 proteins modified by obesity and have been associated with cancer at several sites in past studies. We conducted a cross-sectional study to describe the correlation of these proteins with gender, race/ethnicity, anthropometric indexes, and dietary and lifestyle factors. We measured fasting plasma levels of IGFBP-1, leptin, and C-peptide, used here as a stable measure of insulin secretion, in a random sample of 450 male and 352 postmenopausal female Hawaii and Los Angeles Multiethnic Cohort Study (MEC) participants (age range 47-82 yr at blood draw). Through a series of multiple linear regressions, we found that the most parsimonious model for plasma IGFBP-1 included inverse associations with age, body mass index (BMI), and regular soda intake. A term for interaction between age and BMI was positively associated with plasma IGFBP-1. Adjusted mean plasma leptins were highest among Whites and African Americans and lowest among Hawaiians and Japanese Leptin was also inversely associated with age and positively associated with the interaction between age and race/ethnicity, female gender, and BMI. A model with only race/ethnicity and BMI (positive association) was best for plasma C-peptide. Adjusted means for C-peptide were highest for Japanese and Whites and lowest for African Americans. The overall percent of variance in protein levels explained by these models was low for IGFBP-I (R-2 = 0. 17) and C-peptide (R-2 = 0. 11) and higher for leptin (R-2 = 0.57). We saw no clear correlation between racial/ethnic trends in protein levels with those of colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer incidence rates in the MEC. Research to clarify factors associated with determination of these proteins and their relationship with cancer etiology is warranted
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17640159
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  • 8
    Keywords: CANCER ; PROSTATE ; RISK ; MARKER ; ASSOCIATION ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; SUSCEPTIBILITY LOCUS ; IDENTIFICATION ; genetics ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; prostate cancer ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; MARKERS ; cancer risk ; VARIANT ; CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY ; CORE ; LOCUS ; USA ; CANCER-RISK ; 8Q24 ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; SCAN ; Genetic ; Genome-wide association studies ; RANGE ; MULTIPLE LOCI
    Abstract: We report a genome-wide association study in 10,286 cases and 9,135 controls of European ancestry in the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) initiative. We identify a new association with prostate cancer risk on chromosome 8q24 (rs620861, P = 1.3 x 10(-10), heterozygote OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.10-1.24; homozygote OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.21-1.45). This defines a new locus associated with prostate cancer susceptibility on 8q24
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19767755
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  • 9
    Keywords: CANCER ; POPULATION ; RISK ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; IDENTIFICATION ; METAANALYSIS ; LOCUS ; 8Q24 ; susceptibility loci ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; MULTIPLE LOCI ; HEPATOCYTE NUCLEAR FACTOR-1-BETA
    Abstract: Previous genome-wide association studies have identified two independent variants in HNF1B as susceptibility loci for prostate cancer risk. To fine-map common genetic variation in this region, we genotyped 79 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 17q12 region harboring HNF1B in 10 272 prostate cancer cases and 9123 controls of European ancestry from 10 case-control studies as part of the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) initiative. Ten SNPs were significantly related to prostate cancer risk at a genome-wide significance level of P 〈 5 x 10(-8) with the most significant association with rs4430796 (P = 1.62 x 10(-24)). However, risk within this first locus was not entirely explained by rs4430796. Although modestly correlated (r(2) = 0.64), rs7405696 was also associated with risk (P = 9.35 x 10(-23)) even after adjustment for rs4430769 (P = 0.007). As expected, rs11649743 was related to prostate cancer risk (P = 3.54 x 10(-8)); however, the association within this second locus was stronger for rs4794758 (P = 4.95 x 10(-10)), which explained all of the risk observed with rs11649743 when both SNPs were included in the same model (P = 0.32 for rs11649743; P = 0.002 for rs4794758). Sequential conditional analyses indicated that five SNPs (rs4430796, rs7405696, rs4794758, rs1016990 and rs3094509) together comprise the best model for risk in this region. This study demonstrates a complex relationship between variants in the HNF1B region and prostate cancer risk. Further studies are needed to investigate the biological basis of the association of variants in 17q12 with prostate cancer
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21576123
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  • 10
    Keywords: DISEASES ; VARIANTS ; IDENTIFICATION ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; METAANALYSIS ; susceptibility loci ; CHALLENGES ; Consortia ; ASSOCIATION SCAN ; SARCOSINE
    Abstract: Background: No single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) specific for aggressive prostate cancer have been identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Objective: To test if SNPs associated with other traits may also affect the risk of aggressive prostate cancer. Design, setting, and participants: SNPs implicated in any phenotype other than prostate cancer (p 〈= 10(-7)) were identified through the catalog of published GWAS and tested in 2891 aggressive prostate cancer cases and 4592 controls from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). The 40 most significant SNPs were followed up in 4872 aggressive prostate cancer cases and 24 534 controls from the Prostate Cancer Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for aggressive prostate cancer were estimated. Results and limitations: A total of 4666 SNPs were evaluated by the BPC3. Two signals were seen in regions already reported for prostate cancer risk. rs7014346 at 8q24.21 was marginally associated with aggressive prostate cancer in the BPC3 trial (p = 1.6 x 10(-6)), whereas after meta-analysis by PRACTICAL the summary OR was 1.21 (95% CI 1.16-1.27; p = 3.22 x 10(-18)). rs9900242 at 17q24.3 was also marginally associated with aggressive disease in the meta-analysis (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.86-0.94; p = 2.5 x 10(-6)). Neither of these SNPs remained statistically significant when conditioning on correlated known prostate cancer SNPs. The meta-analysis by BPC3 and PRACTICAL identified a third promising signal, marked by rs16844874 at 2q34, independent of known prostate cancer loci (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06-1.19; p = 4.67 x 10(-5)); it has been shown that SNPs correlated with this signal affect glycine concentrations. The main limitation is the heterogeneity in the definition of aggressive prostate cancer between BPC3 and PRACTICAL. Conclusions: We did not identify new SNPs for aggressive prostate cancer. However, rs16844874 may provide preliminary genetic evidence on the role of the glycine pathway in prostate cancer etiology. Patient summary: We evaluated whether genetic variants associated with several traits are linked to the risk of aggressive prostate cancer. No new such variants were identified.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25277271
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