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  • 1
    ISSN: 0304-4165
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Substance P release ; Noxious stimuli ; Substantia gelatinosa ; Tonic control
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Antibody microprobes were used to measure immunoreactive substance P (irSP) release in the substantia gelatinosa of the lower lumbar spinal cord of barbiturate-anaesthetized cats. Release of irSP was produced by noxious peripheral stimuli. Such release was not altered by blocking spinal conduction at the first lumbar segment by cooling or transecting the spinal cord. The results suggest that the release of irSP from the central terminals of nociceptors is not subject to tonic supraspinal inhibition.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Morphine ; Substance P release ; Substantia gelatinosa ; Antibody microprobe ; Cats
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In anaesthetised cats, antibody microprobes were used to measure the release of immunoreactive substance P (irSP) in the lumbar dorsal horn during noxious cutaneous stimulation or high-intensity electrical stimulation of a hind limb nerve. The major region of irSP release detected was centred on the substantia gelatinosa, with lesser release at the dorsal cord surface. Release at these sites was unchanged by systemic administration of morphine, or of morphine followed by naloxone. During superfusion of the dorsal cord surface with high concentrations of morphine, irSP release in the substantia gelatinosa region was slightly reduced and surface release was not observed, effects not reversed by systemic naloxone administration. The results suggest that the analgesic action of morphine does not involve reduced release of SP in the spinal cord.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: —Removal of the submaxillary glands, the apparent site of NGF synthesis in adult mice, caused a decrease in the activity of all the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of noradrenaline in the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. Thus, tyrosine hydroxylase (phenylalanine 4-monooxygenase, EC 1.14.16.1) DOPA decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.28.) and dopamine β-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.17.1.) showed reduced activity 10 days after removal of the submaxillary glands in both superior cervical and stellate ganglia. This decrease in enzyme activity persisted up to 100 days after surgery. The fourth enzyme studied, choline acetyl-transferase (EC 2.3.1.6.) which is exclusively localized within the presynaptic cholinergic terminals of the ganglia was not affected by sialectomy. A dose of 50 μg NGF/animal/day given over 4 days was only able to restore the enzyme activity to control levels in the superior cervical ganglia of sialectomized mice whereas in stellate ganglia the enzyme activities rose above control levels to a similar extent in sialectomized and non-sialectomized animals.These results provide biochemical evidence that NGF may play a role not only during the growth and normal development of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system but also in the maintenance of its functional integrity in the adult animal.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. In investigating the communication paths between target tissue and neurons we have been led to propose two classes of neurotrophic factors. One comprises the factors which transport themselves, the other factors relying on the transport of a second messenger. The former may have labile second messenger systems necessitating the translocation of agonist and receptor from the nerve terminal to the cell body and the latter must possess a stable second messenger system that itself is sufficiently robust to survive the transport to the cell body.2. One such class of stable messengers may be the GTP-binding protein family and it has been shown that the alpha subunits of both Giα and Gzα can be retrogradely transported in the mouse sciatic nerve.3. Examination of the cell bodies in the dorsal root ganglia revealed that Gα accumulated in the nucleus of cells with intact axons but that 24 h after axonal ligation this immunoreactivity decreased.4. It is suggested that Gzα is activated at the nerve terminal and it, or at least its alpha subunit, undergoes retrograde transport to the cell body where it accumulates in the nucleus.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 283 (1980), S. 206-207 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] SCG from 3-day-old rats were cultured on collagen-coated plastic multitrays (Linbro 76-033-05) in Dulbecco modified Eagle's medium containing 50 mM HEPES, 100 U ml-1 penicillin G, 10% inactivated horse serum, Imgml-1 b-nerve growth factor (bNGF) and varying concentrations of dexamethasone (DXM) or ...
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 287 (1980), S. 647-649 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The iris, ciliary body and choroid were dissected aseptically from 19-day-old chicken embryos, and material from one eye placed in 2 ml of Eagle's medium containing Hanks salts, 50 mM HEPES and 100 U ml"1 penicillin, and incubated at 37 C in humid air. The ability of the conditioned medium to ...
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 243 (1973), S. 500-504 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Surgical removal of the submaxillary glands in adult mice causes a profound drop in the plasma and tissue concentrations of nerve growth factor, and a reduction in the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase within sympathetic ganglia. NGF may be the protein which fulfils the retrograde flow of ...
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of neurocytology 6 (1977), S. 299-309 
    ISSN: 1573-7381
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Cell division in the rat superior cervical and stellate ganglia has been followed from 6 days before birth until 14 days after birth by [3H] thymidine autoradiography. Neuronal division ceased at the postnatal day 4 in superior cervical ganglia and postnatal day 3 in stellate ganglia, whereas division of non-neuronal cells continued throughout the entire period studied. Dividing cells in both ganglia were predominantly neuronal before birth and non-neuronal after the postnatal day 3. Nerve growth factor treatment resulted in an increase in the number of neurons in the ganglia when given either over the first four postnatal days while neuronal division was still occurring or from postnatal days 6–8 after neuronal division had ceased. The increase in neuron numbers was not due to increased neuronal division and was apparently due to an increased survival rate of differentiated neurons. An increase in the rate of division of non-neuronal cells accompanied the administration of nerve growth factor.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-7381
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A computer program, written in standard Fortran, is given to facilitate the computation of the sizes and correct distribution of spheres from the number and size of the circular profiles observed in tissue sections. The method is particularly valuable in cases where it is necessary to determine absolute numbers of cells or subcellular fragments where the objects of interest are not of uniform size. The method gives true cell numbers and the distribution of the spherical diameters.
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