Purpose: Determine the localized expression pattern and clinical significance of VISTA/PD-1H in human non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Experimental Design: Using multiplex quantitative immunofluorescence (QIF), we performed localized measurements of VISTA, PD-1, and PD-L1 protein in 758 stage I–IV NSCLCs from 3 independent cohorts represented in tissue microarray format. The targets were selectively measured in cytokeratin + tumor epithelial cells, CD3 + T cells, CD4 + T-helper cells, CD8 + cytotoxic T cells, CD20 + B lymphocytes and CD68 + tumor-associated macrophages. We determined the association between the targets, clinicopathological/molecular variables and survival. Genomic analyses of lung cancer cases from TCGA were also performed. Results: VISTA protein was detected in 99% of NSCLCs with a predominant membranous/cytoplasmic staining pattern. Expression in tumor and stromal cells was seen in 21% and 98% of cases, respectively. The levels of VISTA were positively associated with PD-L1, PD-1, CD8 + T cells and CD68 + macrophages. VISTA expression was higher in T-lymphocytes than in macrophages; and in cytotoxic T cells than in T-helper cells. Elevated VISTA was associated with absence of EGFR mutations and lower mutational burden in lung adenocarcinomas. Presence of VISTA in tumor compartment predicted longer 5-year survival. Conclusions: VISTA is frequently expressed in human NSCLC and shows association with increased tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, PD-1 axis markers, specific genomic alterations and outcome. These results support the immunomodulatory role of VISTA in human NSCLC and suggests its potential as therapeutic target. Clin Cancer Res; 24(7); 1562–73. ©2017 AACR .