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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Neuronal transplantation ; Dopaminergic grafts d-amphetamine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Rats with dopaminergic lesions were subsequently given grafts of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in various brain regions, and later tested for behavioral reactivity to amphetamine. Two experimental situations were used. 1) Amphetamine-induced circling behavior was measured in animals with unilateral lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway implanted with intrastriatal grafts, 2) locomotor activation by amphetamine was measured in animals with bilateral lesions and grafts in the nucleus accumbens. In both situations, behavioral overcompensation was observed after grafting. Ipsilateral circling, which is caracteristic of a unilateral lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway, gave way to contralateral circling, and locomotor activity was restored to levels above those observed for control animals. This behavioral overcompensation is a reflection of hyperreactivity of grafted animals to amphetamine: they were found to respond to much lower doses than controls and the effect of the drug lasted longer. This enhanced response does not seem to be due to post-synaptic hypersensitivity, but rather to hyper-reactivity of the grafted neurons themselves to amphetamine. The mechanism of this phenomenon, which seems to be a general property of grafted DA neurons is discussed.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Acetylcholine release ; Cholinergic neurons ; Dopamine release ; Dopaminergic transplants ; In vitro release ; Neuronal transplantation ; Nigrostriatal system
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The aim of the study was to examine the influence of intrastriatal dopaminergic grafts on the functioning of striatal cholinergic neurons using an in vitro superfusion method. Rats bearing unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system received a cell suspension obtained from ED 14 rat embryonic mesencephali which was injected into the denervated striatum. Lesioned animals displayed an ipsilateral rotation in response to amphetamine (5 mg/kg i.p.). This rotational response disappeared following grafting and there was even a significant contralateral rotation in response to the drug. Apomorphine (0.1 mg/kg s.c.) induced a contralateral rotation following the lesion. This latter response was attenuated in the grafted group. Three months after grafting 350 μm thick slices were prepared from striata from the control and experimental sides of lesioned and graft-bearing animals. The slices were preincubated either with 3H-dopamine (10-7 M) or 3H-choline (10-7 M) and then superfused with an oxygenated Krebs-Ringer solution. Stimulation with electrical pulses following preincubation with 3H-dopamine elicited a marked increase of tritium outflow from control slices. Stimulation-evoked overflow was of similar magnitude from slices from striata containing the graft, while it was much reduced in slices from lesioned striata. Amphetamine markedly potentiated the effect of electrical stimulation in slices obtained from control and graft-containing striata. Nomifensine (a dopamine uptake blocker) led to a significant decrease of the overflow of 3H-acetylcholine evoked by electrical stimulation from control striatal slices. This inhibition was antagonized by domperidone, a D2 dopamine receptor blocker, a finding which indicates that the action of nomifensine was indeed due to a potentiation of the action of endogenous dopamine released by the electrical stimulation. A similar, although somewhat attenuated, action of nomifensine and domperidone was observed for striatal slices containing the graft. Amphetamine inhibited the stimulation evoked overflow of 3H-acetylcholine in a dose-dependent manner from striatal slices obtained both from the intact and experimental sides of graft-bearing animals, while it had no action on slices from denervated striata. Finally, the dose-response curve for the inhibition of 3H-acetylcholine release by apomorphine was significantly shifted to the left for slices from the lesioned striata as compared with control slices. This leftward shift was totally abolished in the slices from the graft-containing striatum. These results indicate that the dopaminergic inhibition of the striatal cholinergic interneurons, abolished by the lesion, is restored by intrastriatal dopaminergic grafts both in vitro and in vivo. On the other hand the lack of correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro effects (rotational response vs. inhibition of 3H-acetylcholine release) suggest that the effect of such grafts on rotational behavior cannot be explained solely by their action on the striatal cholinergic neurons.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary The enthalpy change associated with aerobic growth of E. coli K12 on minimal media with succinic acid as sole carbon and energy source, determined by flow microcalorimetry (with aerobic mixing cell) was 733.01±15.32 kJ·mol−1. Molar growth yield was 39.6±1.2 g·mol−1. When the microcalorimetric growth was limited by oxygen supply, the power-time curve was altered and the total heat evolved was less than the enthalpy change. The maximum thermal output corresponding to a fully aerobic growth in the calorimetric cell was 1.89×10−3 W·ml−1. Thus, the oxygen uptake rate was about 0.39 ml O2·h−1·ml−1.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aim of the our experiment was to compare the ability of intrastriatal implants of embryonic dopaminergic neurons to reverse two kinds of postlesion modification in the host brain: the change in the activity level of neurons in the denervated area and morphological modifications, e.g. collateral sprouting. The ascending dopaminergic system of 3-day-old rat pups was unilaterally lesioned by an intrahypothalamic injection of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine. This lesion has been described previously to induce an increase in the level of activity of striatal enkephalinergic neurons. The same lesion leads also to sprouting of the serotoninergic afferents in the striatum, leading to hyperinnervation of this structure. The existence of these modifications thus offers the possibility of testing the influence of grafts in one structure of the same animal on two lesion-induced reactions of different nature. A cell suspension obtained from mesencephali of embryonic day 14 rats and containing dopaminergic neurons was implanted into the denervated striatum of lesioned animals 5 days after the lesion. Nine months later the animals were killed and immunohistochemistry was performed on striatal sections using antibodies directed against tyrosine hydroxylase, methionine enkephalin and serotonin. Intensity of immunostaining (methionine enkephalin and serotonin) as well as innervation density (serotonin) was quantified through the use of a computer-assisted image analyser. The lesion led to the disappearance of striatal dopaminergic innervation. Implanted dopaminergic neurons were found scattered in the striatum and restored a dopaminergic innervation in a large portion of this structure. There was a marked increase in striatal methionine enkephalin immunostaining in lesioned animals, which was most pronounced in the dorsolateral part of the striatum (+ 150% compared to control values), while in the ventral part it was slight or non-existent. The density of striatal serotoninergic innervation was also increased by ∼250% relative to control values. In grafted animals striatal enkephalin immunostaining was similar to that observed in control animals. On the other hand, the serotoninergic hyperinnervation was still present in the graft-bearing striata. These results suggest that while intrastriatal implants of embryonic dopaminergic neurons are able to counteract modifications in the functioning of local striatal neuronal systems such as the increase in enkephalinergic activity or receptor hypersensitivity occurring as a result of the lesion, they might be unable to reverse postlesion morphological modifications.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Changes in striatal dopamine D2 receptor mRNA levels provoked by unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesion of the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway were studied by in situ hybridization. The influence of embryonic dopaminergic neurons implanted into the dopamine-depleted striatum on the lesion-induced changes was also examined. Changes in D2 mRNA levels were compared with changes in D2 receptor densities measured in the same animals by receptor autoradiography using [3H]spiperone or [3H]SDZ 205–501 as ligands. The distribution of D2 mRNA in the striatum of control animals closely paralleled that of the D2 receptor itself, as assessed by autoradiography, and the highest density of D2 mRNA occurred in the lateral part of the striatum. One month after lesion, levels of D2 mRNA were 34% higher in the dorsolateral part of the dopamine-depleted striatum than in the corresponding region of the contralateral control striatum. D2 receptor density in this region was increased by 40% relative to the control level. No significant increases could be measured in the medial part of the striatum. The increases in the lateral part were similar at 7 months post-lesion; however, at this time the increase in both D2 mRNA and receptor levels had spread to the medial part of the striatum as well. In the graft-bearing striatum levels of both D2 mRNA and D2 receptors reverted to control levels. This study shows that the post-lesion increase in striatal dopamine receptor and mRNA level is a biphasic phenomenon with a late-occurring component in the medial striatum. It also shows that once the increase in striatal D2 receptor gene expression is accomplished, it is maintained unchanged for long periods, similar to that of D2 receptor levels themselves. Moreover, grafts of embryonic dopaminergic neurons are able to modulate the expression of the dopamine D2 receptor gene.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2826
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The effects of chronic immune challenge on cytokine expression and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) axis responses to stress were studied in Wistar rats after administration of increasing doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Repeated LPS (R-LPS) decreased body weight and increased adrenal weight and pituitary pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA levels. LPS injection increased plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone but the effect was attenuated in R-LPS. Plasma corticosterone but not ACTH responses to restraint were also reduced in R-LPS. Basal and restraint-stimulated corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA levels were lower in R-LPS, but responses to a new LPS injection were similar to controls. In contrast, type 1 CRH receptor (CRH-R1) mRNA responses to both LPS and restraint were blunted in R-LPS. Vasopressin mRNA levels in parvocellular neurones were higher in R-LPS, and increased further after restraint but not after a new LPS injection. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) increased after a single LPS or R-LPS (24 h after the last injection) but declined after a new injection in R-LPS. Interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 mRNAs increased in the pituitary, spleen and circumventricular organs after single or R-LPS, suggesting that cytokines may contribute to the activation of the HPA axis though pathways from the circumventricular organs as well as paracrine effects in the pituitary. The data show that (i) adaptation of the HPA axis during repeated LPS injection involves increases in vasopressin : CRH expression ratios in parvocellular neurones; (ii) that hypothalamic CRH and vasopressin responses to acute stimulation are independent of CRH-R1 expression in the PVN; and (iii) there is a dissociation between pituitary and adrenal responses to acute stress suggesting a decrease of adrenal sensitivity to ACTH.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2826
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The natriuretic peptide receptors (NPR) are membrane-bound guanylate cyclases with extracellular binding domains specific for particular members of the natriuretic peptide family. NPR-A binds atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) with high affinity, whereas the NPR-B appears to be specific for C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP). Previous data indicating extensive overlap between localization of ANP and CNP in hypothalamic neuroendocrine circuits suggest the importance of determining whether specificity of natriuretic peptide action may be conferred via receptor type present on target cells. To address this issue, we used in situ hybridization histochemistry to localize NPR-A and NPR-B mRNA in the hypothalamus. NPR-A mRNA was not found in substantial abundance in any hypothalamic nucleus; however, detectable NPR-A signal was observed in other brain regions, including the subfornical organ and medial habenula. In contrast, NPR-B mRNA was expressed throughout the hypothalamus, including neurons of the magnocellular and parvocellular paraventricular, the arcuate, and the supraoptic nuclei. Expression was also seen in other nuclei essential to neuroendocrine control, including the median preoptic, anteroventral periventricular, tuberomammillary, ventromedial and suprachiasmatic nuclei. NPR-B mRNA was also observed in the neural lobe of the pituitary gland, suggesting expression by pituicytes. The results suggest that NPR-B is the primary natriuretic peptide receptor in hypothalamus, and by inference indicate that CNP is the primary active natriuretic peptide in neuroendocrine regulation.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2826
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a 41 amino acid neuropeptide which plays an important role in the stress response in the hypothalamus. We describe the development of an immortalized hypothalamic cell line which expresses CRH. We hypothesized that this cell line would possess the relevant characteristics of parvocellular CRH-expressing neurones such as glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression and vasopressin (VP) coexpression. For production of hypothalamic cells, embryonic day 19 rat pup hypothalami were dissected and dissociated into tissue culture dishes. They were immortalized by retrovirus-mediated transfer of the SV40 large T antigen gene at 3 days of culture and then screened for expression of CRH following dilution cloning. One cell line was chosen (IVB) which exhibited CRH-like immunoreactivity (CRH-LI) and expressed CRH, VP and CRH1 receptor RNA via the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. In addition, the cell line expressed the neuronal marker, microtubule-associated protein-2. We verified that the CRH-LI from IVB cell lysates coeluted with CRH standard via reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Furthermore, oxidation of the lysate converted its HPLC profile to that identical with oxidized CRH standard. In addition, IVB cells exhibited high affinity binding to CRH. Incubation of IVB cells with CRH lead to increases in cAMP levels and protein kinase A activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Incubation of IVB cells with CRH also resulted in increases in phospho-cyclic-AMP response element binding protein (CREB) imunostaining as detected by immunocytochemical analysis. Finally, CRH treatment of IVB cell lines has been linked to CREB-mediated gene expression as determined via the PathDetect CREB trans-reporting system. The characteristics of IVB cells, such as CRH and VP coexpression, GR expression and a biologically active CRH-R1-mediated signalling pathway, suggest that this neuronal cell line may serve as model of parvocellular CRH neurones.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Activation of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system by psychostimulants such as amphetamine increases c-Fos expression in the striatum, mostly in the striatonigral substance P-ergic pathway. This effect is greatly reduced in the neostriatum deprived of dopaminergic afferents. Dopaminergic grafts implanted into the denervated neostriatum restore the reactivity of the striatum to amphetamine. However, the number of striatal neurons expressing c-Fos is greatly increased in the graft-bearing striatum compared with the normal striatum. We examined whether this increase in the number of c-Fos-expressing neurons corresponds to the recruitment of a new neuronal population, or whether it reflects an increase in the proportion of substance P-ergic neurons exhibiting activation of c-Fos. Adult rats received a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the ascending dopaminergic mesotelencephalic pathway, and a suspension of embryonic mesencephalic neurons was subsequently implanted into the denervated neostriatum. Three months after implantation, animals were injected with d-amphetamine (5 mg/kg) and killed 2 h later. In the first experiment, striatal sections were processed to visualize both c-Fos protein, by immunohistochemistry, and preproenkephalin A or substance P, by in situ hybridization. In the second experiment, c-Fos and neuropeptide Y were visualized on the same sections. In addition, some sections incubated with anti-c-Fos antibody were counterstained with toluidine blue in order to determine whether cholinergic neurons were expressing c-Fos following amphetamine treatment. The density of neurons expressing c-Fos following amphetamine treatment was three-fold higher in the graft-bearing striata than in the striata of control animals. Approximately 75% of the c-Fos expressing cells were substance P-ergic in control animals whereas 6% were enkephalinergic and only a few were neuropeptide Y-ergic or cholinergic. Similar proportions were found in the graft-bearing striatum, signifying that the pattern of activation of c-Fos following amphetamine administration is not changed by the graft. Thus, the increased expression of c-Fos predominantly reflects a graft-induced increase in the proportion of neurons expressing c-Fos within the same population of neurons which normally expresses c-Fos in the striatum, i.e. the striatonigral substance P-ergic neurons; there is no recruitment of a new neuronal population. This increased activation of the striatonigral substance P-ergic pathway may underlie the abnormal behavioural reactions brought about by amphetamine-induced stimulation of the implanted dopaminergic neurons.
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