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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Food Policy 13 (1988), S. 359-365 
    ISSN: 0306-9192
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology , Economics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: ACTH response ; antiglucocorticoid RU-486 ; plasma cortisol level ; corticotrophin releasing hormone CRH ; healthy volunteers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The response of ACTH to an i.v. bolus injection of 100 µg human CRH at 09.00 h was investigated in five healthy men with and without pretreatment with the antiglucocorticoid RU-486 100 mg given orally 7 h before the injection of CRH. In all five subjects the plasma cortisol level immediately before CRH administration at 09.00 h was significantly higher after pretreatment with the antiglucocorticoid (17.1 vs 11.1 µg/100 ml). Despite this higher baseline cortisol level, in all subjects the maximal CRH-induced ACTH increase was more pronounced after RU-486 loading (Δmax ACTH 39 vs 26 pg/ml). This observation proves that in man physiological concentrations of cortisol determine the response of the pituitary to CRH. Furthermore, the findings suggest reduced circulating glucocorticoid activity after administration of 100 mg RU-486, not completely compensated by an increase in plasma cortisol.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: corticotrophin-releasing factor ; hypotension ; ovine CRF ; human CRF ; healthy volunteers ; tachycardia ; plasma noradrenaline
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The haemodynamic effects of i.v. bolus injections of 100 and 200 µg ovine CRF and human CRF in man have been compared. Neither ovine CRF 100 µg nor human CRF 100 µg caused a significant change in blood pressure, although the pulse rate was increased in all the subjects tested. The mean maximum increase in pulse rate after human CRF was almost twice that after ovine CRF (21 vs 12 beats·min−1;p〈0.05). After 200 µg ovine CRF in all subjects the diastolic blood pressure declined gradually from 77 mm Hg to a nadir of 67 mm Hg at 22 min (p〈0.002). After 200 µg human CRF diastolic blood pressure fell from 78 mm Hg to a nadir of 61 mm Hg at 6 min (p〈0.002); the fall after human CRF was significantly greater than after ovine CRF (p〈0.05). After 200 µg ovine CRF there was a slight increase in pulse rate lasting for 6 min, and after 200 µg human CRF there was a marked (reflex) tachycardia for 30 min. Only after the highest dose of human CRF did a slight increase in systolic blood pressure occur. The haemodynamic effects of both doses of human CRF were accompanied by significant increases in plasma noradrenaline concentrations, which were significantly greater after the higher dose.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Keywords: Key words:Adolescents – BUA – Children – Puberty – SOS – Ultrasound
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: We investigated the quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS) measured in the posterior part of the calcaneus at the region of interest (ROI) with the lowest attenuation, using an ultrasound imaging device (UBIS 3000) in 491 healthy Caucasian children and adolescents (262 girls, 229 boys) between 6 and 21 years old. The relation of age, body weight, height, foot dimensions and pubertal stage to BUA and SOS was assessed. BUA increased nonlinearly with age in boys and girls, r 2 being 0.44 (p〈0.001) and 0.57 (p〈0.001), respectively. SOS increased linearly with age in girls (r 2= 0.04, p〈0.001). There was no significant increase in SOS in boys (r 2= 0.01, p〉0.05). Heel width was significantly correlated with BUA (r= 0.20, p〈0.005 in boys; r= 0.27, p〈0.05 in girls) and with SOS (r=−0.19, p〈0.005 in boys; r=−0.08, p〈0.05 in girls). After downward adjustment of the ROI size according to foot length quartiles, significantly lower BUA and SOS values were found compared with those with the standard ROI size of 14 mm. After correction for heel width and adjustment of the ROI size based on foot length, BUA and SOS were significantly associated with age in boys (r 2= 0.36, p〈0.001 and 0.06, p〈0.05) and in girls (r 2= 0.53 and 0.06, both p〈0.001). Tanner stage was significantly correlated with BUA (r= 0.62, p〈0.001 in boys; r= 0.73, p〈0.001 in girls) but not with SOS. BUA but not SOS increased significantly with the number of years since menarche (p〈0.001). In a multiple stepwise regression analysis in boys, age, weight and foot length were independent predictors for BUA, and age and foot length for SOS. In girls, age and weight were independent predictors for BUA and age was the only independent predictor for SOS. After correction for age, pubertal stages and heel width were no longer determinants for QUS parameters in either boys or girls. In conclusion, BUA increased significantly with age in both sexes. SOS increased with age in both boys and girls, but the increase was small and not statistically significant in boys. SOS, as measured with the UBIS 3000 device, may therefore not be appropriate to assess skeletal status in healthy children. Whether SOS and BUA are affected in children with skeletal disorders has yet to be determined. In boys, age, weight and foot length were independent predictors for BUA and age and foot length for SOS. In girls, age and weight were independent predictors for BUA and age was the only independent predictor for SOS. In our opinion, children with small feet should be measured with a smaller ROI diameter than those with larger feet.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1434-0879
    Keywords: Key words Diet ; Risk factors ; Calcium ; Urolithiasis ; Osteoporosis prevention
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The calcium (Ca)-restricted diet of urolithiasis patients with absorptive hypercalciuria type II may decrease Ca excretion but increase biochemical markers of risk for osteopenia. We randomly allocated 25 patients from six hospitals into an experimental group (Ca restriction to 500 mg/day, oxalate-rich products discouraged and normalization of animal protein and sodium) and a control group (no restrictions) for one month. The urinary Ca excretion did not decrease significantly, but the oxalate excretion decreased, although not significantly. The hydroxyproline:creatinine ratio in fasting urine seemed to increase and the calcium:creatinine ratio to decrease. The deoxypyridinoline:creatinine ratio in fasting urine did not change. We conclude that our Ca-restricted diet, which is lower in Ca, animal protein and table salt due to the omission of dairy products, may be of benefit for absorptive hypercalciuria type II patients without enhancing the risk for osteopenia. However, a long-term clinical trial is required.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1619-1560
    Keywords: skin blood flow ; autonomic reactivity ; hypothermia ; poikilothermia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Autonomic reactivity is pivotal in maintaining a constant body core temperature. Skin vasomotor reflexes and cardiovascular reactivity were investigated in four women (aged 28–37 years) with acquired poikilothermia, during steady-state spontaneous hypothermia (rectal temperature (Tr)=33.7 ± 1.0°C [mean ±SD]) and steady-state normothermia (Tr=36.7 ± 0.3°C), as well as in 12 normothermic control subjects. Baseline finger temperature (Tf) during hypothermia was significantly lower than during normothermia (Tf=32.4 ± 1.2 compared with 36.2 ±0.3°C, respectively), and than in the controls (Tf=34.8 ±0.8°C). No significant differences in baseline skin blood flow and forearm blood flow were found between subjects during hypothermia or normothermia and controls, suggesting a failure of sympathetic drive to counter-regulate hypothermia in the subjects. Skin vasoconstrictor responses to the contralateral cooling test and neck cooling test were markedly attenuated in three subjects, and to the finger cooling test in two subjects, during normothermia compared with hypothermia. Blood presure responses to the Valsalva manoeuvre and head-up tilting were normal in all subjects, whereas the heart rate response to head-up tilting was blunted in three subjects during hypothermia. The responses of blood pressure and forearm blood flow to the cold pressor test in the subjects during both thermal conditions were comparable with the controls. We conclude that in our subjects, without generalized autonomic failure, poikilothermia has to be attributed predominantly to disorders of the central thermoregulatory pathways. Our findings during hypothermia and normothermia indicate that variations in core and skin temperature significantly affect skin vasomotor reactivity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1619-7089
    Keywords: Hyperthyroidism ; Radioiodine therapy ; Multinodular goitre
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The long-term effects of two schedules of radioiodine therapy in patients with toxic multinodular goitre were evaluated. Forty-five patients (group A) were treated with low doses and 58 patients (group B) with calculated doses adjusted for thyroid weight (1.85–3.70 MBq/g) and radioactive iodine uptake. Follow-up (mean ± SEM) was 4.3 ± 0.2 years and 5.2 ± 0.3 years, respectively (P〉0.1). At the end of follow-up, hyperthyroidism was successfully reversed in 73% (group A) and 88% (group B). In each group, hypothyroidism was present in 7%. The total dose per gram of thyroid tissue was not significantly different in groups A and B (2.1 ± 0.2 vs 2.7 ± 0.2 MBq/g). However, for patients treated with calculated doses the number of 131I administrations was significantly lower (1.3 ± 0.1) than for patients treated with low doses (2.2 ± 0.2), and the percentage of patients who were adequately treated with a single dose was more than twice as high (66% in group B versus 27% in group A). Euthyroidism was reached within a significantly shorter time after treatment with calculated doses (median time 0.6 years in group B vs 1.5 years in group A; life table analysis). It is concluded that radioiodine is an effective treatment for toxic multinodular goitre with a low risk of post-treatment hypothyroidism and that calculated (higher) doses appear to be preferable to low doses.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A mathematical model was developed to describe the relative influence of phytic acid, dietary fiber components, oxalic acid, citric acid and ascorbic acid on in vitro availability of Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu and Zn. The model was based on a combination of interdependent Langmuir isotherms. Throughout a diverse set of food products (cereal products, fruits, vegetables and nuts), the mathematical model described and predicted in vitro availability of Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn well (r = 0.89, 0.87, 0.90 and 0.92 respectively). The model proved valuable in studying simultaneous effects of food components on in vitm availability of minerals and trace elements in foods. Therefore, the mathematical model should help relate in vitro simulations to in vivo experiments.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0022-4731
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: cohort study ; fruit ; lung cancer ; vegetables
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective: The purpose was to study the association between vegetable and fruit consumption and lung cancer incidence using 1074 cases after 6.3 years of follow-up in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Methods: Dietary intake was assessed using a 150-item food-frequency questionnaire. Multivariate models were used including age, sex, family history of lung cancer, highest educational level attained, and smoking history. Results: Statistically significant inverse associations were found with total vegetables and most vegetable groups. Rate ratios (RRs) based on consumption frequency showed the strongest effect of vegetables from the Brassica group (RR 0.5, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.3–0.9, for consumption ≥3 times per week versus ≤ once a month). RR of highest versus lowest quintile of total vegetable consumption was 0.7 (95% CI 0.5–1.0, p-trend 0.001). Statistically significant inverse associations were found for all fruits listed in the questionnaire. RRs for quintiles of total fruit intake were 1.0, 0.7, 0.6, 0.6 and 0.8 respectively (p-trend 〈 0.0001). Protective effects of fruits and vegetables were stronger in current than in former smokers, and weaker for adenocarcinomas than for other types of tumors. Conclusions: Inverse associations with lung cancer are found for both vegetable and fruit intake, but no specific type of vegetable or fruit seems to be particularly responsible.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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