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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Acetylcholine release ; Cholinergic neurons ; Dopamine release ; Dopaminergic transplants ; In vitro release ; Neuronal transplantation ; Nigrostriatal system
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The aim of the study was to examine the influence of intrastriatal dopaminergic grafts on the functioning of striatal cholinergic neurons using an in vitro superfusion method. Rats bearing unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system received a cell suspension obtained from ED 14 rat embryonic mesencephali which was injected into the denervated striatum. Lesioned animals displayed an ipsilateral rotation in response to amphetamine (5 mg/kg i.p.). This rotational response disappeared following grafting and there was even a significant contralateral rotation in response to the drug. Apomorphine (0.1 mg/kg s.c.) induced a contralateral rotation following the lesion. This latter response was attenuated in the grafted group. Three months after grafting 350 μm thick slices were prepared from striata from the control and experimental sides of lesioned and graft-bearing animals. The slices were preincubated either with 3H-dopamine (10-7 M) or 3H-choline (10-7 M) and then superfused with an oxygenated Krebs-Ringer solution. Stimulation with electrical pulses following preincubation with 3H-dopamine elicited a marked increase of tritium outflow from control slices. Stimulation-evoked overflow was of similar magnitude from slices from striata containing the graft, while it was much reduced in slices from lesioned striata. Amphetamine markedly potentiated the effect of electrical stimulation in slices obtained from control and graft-containing striata. Nomifensine (a dopamine uptake blocker) led to a significant decrease of the overflow of 3H-acetylcholine evoked by electrical stimulation from control striatal slices. This inhibition was antagonized by domperidone, a D2 dopamine receptor blocker, a finding which indicates that the action of nomifensine was indeed due to a potentiation of the action of endogenous dopamine released by the electrical stimulation. A similar, although somewhat attenuated, action of nomifensine and domperidone was observed for striatal slices containing the graft. Amphetamine inhibited the stimulation evoked overflow of 3H-acetylcholine in a dose-dependent manner from striatal slices obtained both from the intact and experimental sides of graft-bearing animals, while it had no action on slices from denervated striata. Finally, the dose-response curve for the inhibition of 3H-acetylcholine release by apomorphine was significantly shifted to the left for slices from the lesioned striata as compared with control slices. This leftward shift was totally abolished in the slices from the graft-containing striatum. These results indicate that the dopaminergic inhibition of the striatal cholinergic interneurons, abolished by the lesion, is restored by intrastriatal dopaminergic grafts both in vitro and in vivo. On the other hand the lack of correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro effects (rotational response vs. inhibition of 3H-acetylcholine release) suggest that the effect of such grafts on rotational behavior cannot be explained solely by their action on the striatal cholinergic neurons.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Fimbria-fornix lesion ; Hippocampus ; Radial-arm maze ; Spatial memory ; Sympathetic sprouting ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This longitudinal study, extending over 12 months, assessed the behavioural and biochemical effects of hippocampal sympathetic ingrowth (HSI) into the partially denervated hippocampus. Male Long-Evans rats received fimbria-fornix lesions (FIFO) or sham operations at 90 days of age. At the same time half of the rats from each group sustained bilateral ablation of the superior cervical ganglia (SCGX). A battery of behavioural tests, measuring spontaneous alternation, activity in the open field and home cage, and radial-maze performance, were employed, starting after one very short (16 days) and one extended (216 days) postoperative delay. Neurochemical analyses measuring choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, high-affinity choline (HACU) and noradrenaline uptake by hippocampal synaptosomes (HANU), hippocampal noradrenaline ([NA]), serotonin ([5-HT]) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ([5-HIAA]) concentrations were carried out in a dorsal, a “middle” and a ventral region of the hippocampus. Lesion of the FIFO induced a significant and enduring deficit in radial-maze performance, in addition to a persistent locomotor hyperactivity. ChAT and HACU were significantly depleted in all three regions of the hippocampus at 12 months, and these deficits were negatively correlated with maze performance. SCGX in the presence of the FIFO lesion significantly reduced [NA] in the middle region of the hippocampus, as compared to SCGX rats, and contributed to a restoration of lesion-induced depletions in [5-HT] and [5-HIAA] in the middle and ventral hippocampal regions, whilst failing to elicit any behavioural changes at either time point. It is concluded that if lesion-induced HSI indeed occurred, as is suggested by neurochemical evidence, it had no effect upon the observed behavioural deficits elicited by transection of the FIFO in the rat.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Acetylcholine ; Fimbria/fornix ; Hippocampus ; Intracerebral grafts ; Muscarinic receptors ; Noradrenaline ; Phosphoinositides ; Serotonin ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Long Evans female rats sustained aspirative lesions of the septohippocampal pathways; subsequently, they received intrahippocampal suspension grafts of fetal septal-diagonal band or hippocampal tissue. The long term (8–10 months post-surgery) effects of these treatments were examined in the hippocampus for the following variables: concentration of hippocampal acetylcholine (ACh), muscarinic-stimulated (carbachol) formation of inositol monophosphate, accumulation of tritiated choline, noradrenaline (3H-NA) and serotonin (3H-5-HT), electrically evoked release of 3H-acetylcholine (3H-ACh), 3H-NA and 3H-5-HT, and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity. The lesions decreased the levels of endogeneous ACh, the accumulation of 3H-choline and 3H-5-HT and the evoked release of both 3H-ACh and 3H-5-HT as well as the ChAT activity, but they failed to significantly affect the muscarinic-stimulated formation of inositol monophosphate and the accumulation and release of 3H-NA. Grafts of hippocampal cells were found to be ineffective on all lesion-induced effects. In contrast, grafts of septal-diagonal band origin attenuated the deficit of hippocampal concentrations of ACh and accumulation of 3H-choline without, however, improving release of 3H-ACh, accumulation and release of 3H-5-HT, and ChAT activity. These observations suggest that: (i) denervation-induced hippocampal muscarinic supersensitivity might not be long-lasting or the lesions, which in some cases spared the lateral edges of the fimbria, failed to induce any muscarinic supersensitivity, (ii) intrahippocampal grafts rich in cholinergic neurons do not foster recovery from the lesion-induced noncholinergic deficits we assessed, (iii) recovery of function may be expressed by some but not all biochemical or pharmacological cholinergic variables and (iv) graft-derived hippocampal reinnervation may be less efficient than the endogenous innervation of intact rats as indicated by the restoration of only some of the variables related to cholinergic function by intrahippocampal septal-diagonal band grafts.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: As a first step for experiments investigating the presynaptic characteristics of sympathetic fibers grown into the denervated hippocampus, we studied the time course of changes of neurochemical markers in the rat hippocampus, subsequent to aspiration lesions of the fimbria-fornix and the overlying callosal and cortical structures. At various postsurgical delays (1, 2, 8, 24, and 40 weeks), the activity of choline acetyltransferase, the high-affinity synaptosomal uptake of choline and noradrenaline, and the concentrations of noradrenaline, serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were measured in a dorsal, an intermediate, and a ventral part of the hippocampus. Levels of all markers were significantly reduced shortly (1–2 weeks) after the lesions. However, whereas the cholinergic (choline uptake and choline acetyltransferase activity) and the serotonergic (concentrations of serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid) markers remained significantly reduced for up to 40 weeks, both noradrenergic markers recovered to near-normal (noradrenaline uptake) or even supranormal (noradrenaline concentration) levels, although with clear-cut differences in the time course and the regional characteristics. The noradrenaline content reached control levels already 8 weeks after lesion surgery and was about two to three times higher 40 weeks later, with the most dramatic effects in the ventral hippocampus. In contrast, high-affinity noradrenaline uptake reached control values only 24 weeks after lesion and exceeded them only in the ventral hippocampus 40 weeks after surgery. It is concluded (a) that hippocampal noradrenaline concentration is a more sensitive marker for sympathetic sprouting than high-affinity noradrenaline uptake and (b) that functional in vitro studies on hippocampal sympathetic ingrowth appear to fit optimal conditions in the ventral hippocampus at a delay of at least 40 weeks after surgery.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The vasoconstrictors angiotensin II, vasopressin and the α-sympathominetic phenylephrine significantly inhibit the renin release caused by the β-sympathomimetic isoprenaline. The mechanism of the inhibition is discussed.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The drinking response of rats seen after the hypotensive drugs phentolamine, isoproterenol and hydralazine/bretylium can be abolished by nephrectomy. It is postulated, that the dipsogenic activity of these drugs is mediated by renin.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cellular and molecular life sciences 18 (1962), S. 214-215 
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Tritium-markiertes nor-Epinephrin, welches im Meerschweinchenherzen 4 bis 8 h nach intravenöser Injektion gebunden war, wurde mit der gleichen Geschwindigkeit wie körpereigenes Catecholamin nach Verabreichung von Reserpin freigesetzt. Es kann daher angenommen werden, dass injiziertes nor-Epinephrin sich im Herzen mit der Masse des endogenen Hormons vermischt.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0928-4257
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 188 (1960), S. 1108-1109 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] On the basis of these considerations we have synthesized a number of compounds the structure of which is more or less similar to that of reserpine, in the hope that these would have useful medicinal properties. These compounds fall into two classes : -indolylethylamine derivatives, having the ...
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 187 (1960), S. 604-605 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] O-methylation is a major route for the inactivation of circulating catecholamines5, and, more recently, binding by many tissues has been shown to be important for the inactivation of circulating adrenaline6 and noradrenaline7. This communication describes the influence of cocaine on the uptake into ...
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