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  • 1
    ISSN: 0169-4332
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0169-4332
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 86 (1999), S. 6462-6467 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The electrical characteristics of metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitors with SiON/Ta2O5 gate dielectric stacks with thin Ta2O5 layers (6–10 nm) are investigated. From the field and temperature dependence of the current of the gate stacks, it is shown that the main conduction mechanism at low bias is tunneling through the stack and that Poole–Frenkel conduction in the Ta2O5 layer becomes important at larger bias and temperature. From the analysis of the data in the high voltage and temperature range, taking into account the field distribution in both layers, the refractive index n of Ta2O5 and the energy level φB of traps involved in Poole–Frenkel conduction are found to be 2.3 and 0.85 eV, respectively. It is also shown that the gate current density of the stack is reduced by one to three orders of magnitude as compared to SiO2 layers with equivalent electrical thickness (2.5–3 nm). The temperature acceleration effect on the time-dependent dielectric breakdown is shown to be much reduced in the SiON/Ta2O5 stack as compared to SiO2 layers with equivalent electrical thickness. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 85 (1999), S. 3837-3843 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Laser cleaning is one of the new promising dry cleaning techniques considered by semiconductor companies to replace wet cleans in the near future. A dry laser cleaning tool was tested that uses an inert gas jet to remove particles lifted off by the action of a DUV excimer laser. A model was developed to simulate the cleaning process and analyze the influence of experimental parameters on laser cleaning efficiency. The best cleaning efficiencies obtained with 1.0 μm SiO2, ∼0.3 μm Si3N4, and 0.3 μm SiO2 particles deposited on Si wafers were 84±8%, 33±4%, and 12±7%, respectively. This is in qualitative agreement with theoretical calculations showing the existence of a size threshold for the removal of nonabsorbing particles by dry laser cleaning. Among the process parameters tested to optimize the process efficiency, fluence showed the highest influence on removal efficiency, before the number of laser pulses and the laser repetition rate. The use of high fluences was limited by the damaging of the wafer surface, which was not homogeneous on a macroscopic scale. The optimum number of laser pulses per unit area depended on the type of particle. The laser repetition rate had no significant influence on cleaning efficiency and can be used to reduce process time. The influence of capillary condensation on the process was demonstrated by the higher removal efficiency of 0.3 μm SiO2 and Si3N4 particles, 88±6% and 78%, respectively, upon exposure of wafers to air saturated with moisture prior to laser processing. This was attributed to the explosive evaporation of capillary condensed water, similar to the mechanism proposed for liquid assisted laser cleaning. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Homogeneous injection of holes into the gate oxide of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices was obtained using p-channel MOS transistors under illumination conditions. Because gate hole currents could be measured the dependence of the hole trapping on the oxide electric field and on the energy of the holes at the injection point could be investigated. In contrast to results recently reported for electron injection no evidence for the generation of traps during hole injection was found. Only a small dependence of the capture cross section on the oxide field was observed. The study of the interface state generation during hole injection at various fields revealed that the amount of interface states directly generated by the injected holes is less than 5% of the number of trapped holes. For longer times a transformation process occurs and a correlation is found between the detrapping of holes and the generation of interface states.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 84 (1998), S. 4351-4355 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The current–voltage characteristics of metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with a 4.2 nm SiO2 gate oxide are investigated. After the occurrence of soft breakdown, which is observed during constant current stress of the devices, the gate current is shown to behave like a power law of the applied gate voltage. We propose that this power law behavior is due to the formation of a percolation path between the electrons traps generated in the SiO2 layer during current stress of the capacitor. We describe a simple model which accounts for the current–voltage characteristics between two neighbor trapping sites, as well as a distribution of percolation thresholds in these (finite size) ultrathin SiO2 layers. The prediction of the model is in fair agreement with the experimental results in a large voltage range, and leads to a better description of the data than previously reported models. Furthermore, it is shown that this percolation model can also explain the temperature dependence of the gate current after the occurrence of soft breakdown. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The effects of high-field stressing (9–10 MV/cm) with positive gate voltage on charges and defects in the SiO2 layer of metal-oxide-semiconductor structures are reported. In Al-gate devices negative charge builds up near the Si-SiO2 interface whereas positive charge is generated near the Al-SiO2 interface. Subsequent avalanche injection of electrons into the oxide does not annihilate the positive charge but the negative charge disappears. Similar studies were performed on polycrystalline silicon gate devices for which internal photoemission (photo I-V) measurements are reported for the first time. In this case a negative charge distribution is observed near both SiO2 interfaces after a positive stress and additional electron traps are created near the noninjecting polycrystalline silicon/SiO2 interface. Similarly, a negative stress for a polycrystalline silicon gate device creates electron traps near the substrate Si-SiO2 interface, as reported previously for Al-gate devices.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The dielectric breakdown under constant current stressing of 4.2 nm SiO2 gate oxides is investigated. After soft breakdown, which corresponds to an anomalous increase of the stress-induced leakage current of metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitors, the current behaves like a power law of the applied gate voltage VG. After soft breakdown, charge is further injected into the SiO2 layer in order to extract the effective resistivity ρeff of the system as a function of the density of oxide traps D generated in the layer. It is found that ρeff behaves like a power law of (D−Dc) where Dc is the critical density of traps generated at soft breakdown. These results are in fair agreement with the predictions of the percolation theory of nonlinear conductor networks. Besides, the value of the critical exponent related to the resistivity is close to the one expected in two dimensions. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 75 (1994), S. 1207-1209 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The hydrogen termination and surface reconstruction of (100) silicon annealed at high temperature in a H2 atmosphere at 1 bar is investigated with multiple internal reflection infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The surface flattens and becomes 2×1 reconstructed and terminated by strained monohydrides. This surface is shown to be very stable against contamination and oxidation.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 80 (2002), S. 2374-2376 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Miscibility is a key factor for maintaining the homogeneity of the amorphous structure in a ZrO2–Al2O3 binary alloy high-k dielectric layer. In the present work, a ZrO2/Al2O3 laminate thin layer has been prepared by atomic layer chemical vapor deposition on a Si (100) wafer. This layer, with artificially induced inhomogeneity (lamination), enables one to study the change in homogeneity of the amorphous phase in the ZrO2/Al2O3 system during annealing. High temperature grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) was used to investigate the change in intensity of the constructive interference peak of the x-ray beams which are reflected from the interfaces of ZrO2/Al2O3 laminae. The HT-XRD spectra show that the intensity of the peak decreases with an increase in the anneal temperature, and at 800 °C, the peak disappears. The same samples were annealed by a rapid thermal process (RTP) at temperatures between 700 and 1000 °C for 60 s. Room temperature XRD of the RTP annealed samples shows a similar decrease in peak intensity. Transmission electronic microscope images confirm that the laminate structure is destroyed by RTP anneals and, just below the crystallization onset temperature, a homogeneous amorphous ZrAlxOy phase forms. The results demonstrate that the two artificially separated phases, ZrO2 and Al2O3 laminae, tend to mix into a homogeneous amorphous phase before crystallization. This observation indicates that the thermal stability of ZrO2–Al2O3 amorphous phase is suitable for high-k applications. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.
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