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  • 1
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  Deutscher Kongress für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie; 74. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Unfallchirurgie, 96. Tagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Orthopädie und Orthopädische Chirurgie, 51. Tagung des Berufsverbandes der Fachärzte für Orthopädie; 20101026-20101029; Berlin; DOCWI53-961 /20101021/
    Publication Date: 2010-10-22
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
    Keywords: QUANTIFICATION ; mechanisms ; MRI ; MASS INDEX ; metabolic syndrome ; WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE ; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION ; ABDOMINAL OBESITY ; CARDIOVASCULAR RISK ; VISCERAL FAT
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: In epidemiological studies, measures of body fat generally are obtained through anthropometric indices such as the body mass index (BMI), waist (WC), and hip circumferences (HC). Such indices, however, can only provide estimates of a person's true body fat content, overall or by adipose compartment, and may have limited accuracy, especially for the visceral adipose compartment (VAT). OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent to which different body adipose tissue compartments are adequately predicted by anthropometry, and to identify anthropometric measures alone, or in combination to predict overall adiposity and specific adipose tissue compartments, independently of age and body size (height). METHODS: In a sub-study of 1,192 participants of the German EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) cohorts, whole-body MRI was performed to determine adipose and muscle tissue compartments. Additional anthropometric measurements of BMI, WC and HC were taken. RESULTS: After adjusting for age and height, BMI, WC and HC were better predictors of total body volume (TBV), total adipose tissue (TAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) than for VAT, coronary adipose tissue (CAT) and skeletal muscle tissue (SMT). In both sexes, BMI was the best predictor for TBV (men: r = 0.72 [0.68-0.76], women: r = 0.80 [0.77-0.83]) and SMT (men: r = 0.52 [0.45-0.57], women: r = 0.48 [0.41-0.54]). WC was the best predictor variable for TAT (r = 0.48 [0.41-0.54]), VAT (r = 0.44 [0.37-0.50]) and CAT (r = 0.34 [0.26-0.41]) (men), and for VAT (r = 0.42 [0.35-0.49]) and CAT (r = 0.29 [0.22-0.37]) (women). BMI was the best predictor for TAT (r = 0.49 [0.43-0.55]) (women). HC was the best predictor for SAT (men (r = 0.39 [0.32-0.45]) and women (r = 0.52 [0.46-0.58])). CONCLUSIONS: Especially the volumes of internal body fat compartments are poorly predicted by anthropometry. A possible implication may be that associations of chronic disease risks with the sizes of internal body fat as measured by BMI, WC and HC may be strongly underestimated.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24626110
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0920-9964
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European radiology 10 (2000), S. 1839-1840 
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Two divergent strains of adenovirus type 31 were analyzed by neutralization test and restriction endonuclease (RE) patterns in an effort to find the basis for their genetic variability. One strain, isolated from the throat of a child in Maryland during an upper respiratory illness in 1968, was partially neutralized by Ad 31 antisera (to 16-fold lower than homologous titer) while its own antiserum fully neutralized prototype Ad 31 virus, but shared only 9% of comigrating RE fragments with Ad 31 prototype (vs. 30% with Ad 18 prototype); however, PCR tests specific for the inverted terminal repeat (ITR) sequence of Ads 12 and 18 were negative. The other strain, recovered from a stool sample from an infant with diarrhea in Georgia in 1979, was inhibited by Ad 31 antiserum to within 4-fold homologous titer, but shared only 15% of comigrating fragments with Ad 31 prototype (vs. 91% with Ad 18 prototype); ITR-specific PCR tests with this virus were positive for Ad 12/Ad 18. These data suggest that both strains are from separate evolutionary lines of Ad 31 unrelated to all other isolates studied to date by RE analysis, and that the partial neutralization by prototype Ad 31 antisera might represent small mutations in the hexon gene.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary From the United States, the Federal Republic of Germany, and other regions, 168 strains of AV7, isolated between 1961 and 1985, were analyzed by six restriction endonucleases and nine genome types were identified. The enzymes BamHI and HindIII were most discriminative. The genome type D5 (or 7b) predominated with 120 isolates since 1970 in both countries. Strains of D2 (7a) and D4 (7c) were isolated for a limited time, D3 for an extended time period. Several clusters of infections with the same genome type were found. Differences in pathogenicity could not be derived from our data. On the basis of restriction site mapping, most other genome types were similar to D5, one to D2 and one to the prototype (D1). The genomic relation between AV7 and AV3 is discussed and shown by a dendrogram.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We carried out detailed antigenic and restriction enzyme (RE) analyses on the subgenus B and D adenovirus isolates from 48 AIDS patients. These isolates were unusual both in the diversity of serotypes and in the number of intermediate strains identified. All unusual isolates were strain-purified and tested by serum neutralization (SN) and hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) tests with reference horse and rabbit antisera to all the prototype human adenoviruses; conversely, rabbit antisera were prepared to 16 selected strains from this study and tested by SN and HI with all prototype viruses. Among subgenus B strains, 6 DNA variants of Ad 11 isolates were distinguished by endonucleases BamHI, BglII, BstEII, HindIII, and SmaI. The D2 variant of Ad 11 was prominant with 5 isolates, and 7 other isolates differed from D 2 in only 1 or 2 enzymes. HindIII was the most discriminative endonuclease for Ad 11 and related strains. Within subgenus D, there were 16 isolates of intermediate strains, including 4 intermediate types related to new Ad types 43–47. The RE patterns of subgenus D strains showed fragment distributions typical of subgenus D, with various unique patterns. Particular care was taken to analyze multiple strains from the same patient, recovered as much as 8 months apart, for evidence of genetic changes. The possible long-term infections with these viruses may provide the opportunity for mutations and recombination to occur, with the resultant generation of a variety of new strains of adenoviruses.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Monoclonal antibodies were prepared to the F and M proteins of parainfluenza 4A and 4B and to mumpsvirus to obtain reagents that could be configured into type-specific yet broadly-reactive IFA, EIA, and TR-FIA tests. Several antibodies to parainfluenza 4A also detected subtype 4B, although to a somewhat lower signal, and thus were well suited to generic parainfluenza type 4 tests that were comparable to similar tests previously described for parainfluenza types 1, 2, and 3. Monoclonals to subtype 4B were less able to detect 4A because of high background problems in one or another test. Monoclonals to mumpsvirus F protein were completely type-specific. These antibodies were screened by IFA and EIA for broad reactivity with diverse strains of each virus and were configured into optimized EIA and TR-FIA tests. The all-monoclonal tests were then compared to polyclonal tests in terms of their ability to detect virus in clinical specimens. The all-monoclonal TR-FIA was uniformly the most sensitive, detecting virus in 80% of culture-positive parainfluenza 4A specimens, 67% of parainfluenza 4B specimens, and 90% of mumps specimens, compared to 40–67% for the monoclonal EIA tests and 33–60% for the polyclonal EIA tests. For parainfluenza 4 TR-FIA, mean P/N values were 379 for subtype 4A cell culture fluids (228 for subtype 4B cultures) and 57 for 4A clinical specimens (43 for 4B specimens). For mumpsvirus TR-FIA, mean P/N values were 27 for culture fluids and 32 for clinical specimens. The sensitivities of the TR-FIA were determined with purified virus to be 0.28 ng virus per well for parainfluenza 4A and 0.70 ng virus per well for mumpsvirus.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Strains of respiratory syncytial virus from 3 major areas of Australia and Papua New Guinea (PNG) were analyzed for variations in their antigenic and biological properties and in the molecular weights of their major structural proteins. Seventy-eight strains from infants and young children with LRI were collected from 1981–1984. The RSV season in the Australian cities lasted from April through September, with major peaks in July of each year, while the RSV season in tropical PNG was year-round, with small peaks in March and October of each year coinciding with excessive rainfall. Fifty-six strains were analyzed in detail; 40 were typed by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay with monoclonal antibodies as group A strains and 16 were group B; both groups were concurrent. Three children of one family had sequential RSV infections 13 months apart, and the etiologic group A strain was identical both years in terms of growth and antigenic properties with strain-specific ferret antisera; the second infection was milder in all three children. On average, the group A strains replicated considerably better than group B strains in HEp2 cells, producing 53% more syncytia and 99% higher infectious virus titers in 31% less time in culture. Ten group A and B reference strains exhibited the same growth patterns as the A and B regional strains, respectively. Differences in antigenicity as measured with hyperimmune antisera to prototype Long strain were even greater. Group A strains exhibited a mean 68% greater IFA staining than B strains, a 71% greater EIA reaction, and were neutralized to 69% higher serum titers than B strains. Again, the reference A and B strains included as controls gave patterns identical to those of the regional strains. Finally, the P phosphoprotein had consistently higher molecular weight in A strains (mean 35 900) than B strains (mean 33 100). Small variations in the sizes of the F and G glycoproteins were not sufficient to suggest grouping on this basis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary An immunofluorometric assay (IFMA) has been evaluated as a screening assay to detect monoclonal antibodies to the group-specific antigen of the adenovirus hexon component. The antibodies were produced as mouse ascitic fluids from hybridoma cells generated from Balb/C mice immunized with purified adenovirus type 2 hexon component and crude adenovirus type 3 culture supernatants. The purified IgG fractions from all monoclonal ascitic fluids tested were identified as the IgG1 K mouse isotype. Antibody titers ranged from 102,400 to 204,800 by the IFMA, from 200 to 12,800 by indirect FA, and were generally nonreactive in counterelectrophoresis, complement fixation, hemagglutination-inhibition, serum neutralization, and immune electron microscopy titrations. The IFMA is a reliable method for quantitating low levels of specific antibody in large numbers of test samples, and is therefore ideal as a screening assay for monoclonal antibody in tissue culture fluids and in mouse ascitic fluids.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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