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  • 1
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  G-I-N Conference 2012; 20120822-20120825; Berlin; DOCO26 /20120710/
    Publication Date: 2012-07-11
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1434-4483
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Summary The January anomaly time series for each term of the surface heat budget (solar and longwave radiation, sensible and latent heat fluxes) are calculated for Ocean Weather Stations (OWSs) in the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans. The data set used is the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS). The dominant term is the latent heat flux. The results for OWS P in the northern North Pacific show that the interannual variability of the heat budget parameters is correlated with the synoptic variability of the Aleutian low. There is also an interdecadal signal present in the heat budget anomaly time series, with the sign of the anomaly persisting for about 8–10 years. In contrast, for OWS J in the northern North Atlantic, no correlation is found between the variability of the heat budget parameters and the corresponding synoptic variability of the Icelandic low. The station J air-sea heat fluxes also show a higher frequency variability, compared to those of station P. The results suggest the variability of the January air-sea heat exchange processes are fundamentally different over the two ocean basins.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1434-4483
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Summary A coupled 1-D time-dependent radiative-convective-photochemical diffusion model which extends from the surface to 60 km is used to investigate the potential impact of greenhouse trace gas emissions on long-term changes in global climate, atmospheric ozone and surface UV-B radiation, taking into accoont the influence of aerosol loading into the atmosphere from major volcanic eruptions, of thermal inertia of the upper mixed layer of the ocean and of other radiativephotochemical feedback mechanisms. Experiments are carried out under global and annual average insolation and cloudiness conditions. The transient calculations are made for three different growth scenarios for increase in trace gas concentrations. Scenario 1, which begins in 1850, uses the best estimate values for future trace gas concentrations of CO2, CH4, N2O, CFC-11, CFC-12 and tropospheric O3, based on current observational trends. Scenarios 2 and 3, which begin in 1990, assume lower and upper ranges, respectively, of observed growth rates to estimate future concentrations. The transient response of the model for Scenario 1 suggests that surface warming of the ocean mixed layer of about 1 K should have taken place between 1850 and 1990 due to a combined increase of atmospheric CO2 and other trace gases. For the three scenarios considered in this study, the cumulative surface warming induced by all major trace gases for the period 1850 to 2080 ranges from 2.7 K to 8.2 K with the best estimate value of 5 K. The results indicate that the direct and the indirect chemistry-climate interactions of non-CO2 trace gases contribute significantly to the cumulative surface warming (up to 65% by the year 2080). The thermal inertia of a mixed layer of the ocean is shown to have the effect of delaying equilibrium surface warming by almost three decades with an e-folding time of about 5 years. The volcanic aerosols which would result from major volcanic eruptions play a significant role by interrupting the long-term greenhouse surface warming trend and replacing it by a temporary cooling on a time scale of a decade or less. Furthermore, depending on the scenario used, a reduction in the net ozone column could result in an increase in the solar UV-B radiation at the surface by as much as 300% towards the end of 21st century.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1434-4483
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Summary The response of the climatic system to changes in its radiative forcing has been the subject of much study. Climate models of various complexity have been used to demonstrate that a small increase in the solar constant, or doubling of the atmospheric CO2, would lead to a warmer surface. Very little scientific attention, however, has been given to the effect such a change in radiative balance might have on climatic variability. That is, would an earth warmed in this way be more temperate or more variable? To move one step closer to answering this question, we employed a simple one-dimensional surface energy balance climate model and forced it with random Gaussian white noise to simulate interannual variability. We integrated the model using 0, 2, and 4% increases in the solar constant. The results of these numerical experiments indicate that, under a warmer surface radiative balance, interannual variability of the surface temperature is reduced.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1434-4483
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Summary Dubbed Ice Storm ’98, an extreme weather event characterized by two synoptic systems in succession dropped about 70–100 mm (in terms of water equivalent) of freezing precipitation over southeastern Ontario, southwestern Quebec and northeastern New York during a 6-day period from January 5 to 10 in 1998. Individually, the two synoptic systems were not dramatically more extreme in freezing precipitation than other major freezing rain events (4 since 1961) which occurred in the past over the affected area. Some regions in the target area, however, were impacted more by the second system. Based on an analysis of the 500 hPa vorticity field during the ’98 event, we suggest that the 1997/98 El Niño had a role in creating a flow environment conducive to the rapid formation of the second synoptic system. In contrast, other major freezing rain events in the last 30 years involved only one synoptic system per event lasting no more than 3 days, and producing 20–50 mm of precipitation. We have also found that, 3 out of 4 past major freezing rain events since 1958 were associated with the positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Consistent with this usual past association between the NAO and a major freezing rain event, Ice Storm ’98 also occurred when the phase of the NAO was positive. Analysis of these 3 past and the ’98 events also indicates an apparent connection between the positive phase of the NAO and the northern Quebec high pressure system, which is an essential synoptic feature of a major freezing rain occurrence over the southcentral region of Canada. As measured by their respective indices, the maximum positive NAO state leads the maximum northern Quebec high by about 2 days (5 days in the ’98 event). There is some suggestive evidence to indicate that the persistence of the northern Quebec high pressure system is connected to the persistence of the positive phase of the NAO.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A sheet plasma ion source has been developed. The new technology will allow simultaneous irradiation of large area samples of 500 mm in width with a high-current ion beam. As a first step of this development, a sheet ion beam of 90 mm width and currents of 38 mA had been successfully extracted from the stable sheet plasma. Both characteristics of the sheet plasma discharge and the sheet ion beam extraction are reported in this article.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Head withdrawal ; Trigeminal nerve ; Infraorbital nerve ; Trigemino-cervical reflex ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We describe a reflex evoked in neck muscles by stimulation of afferent fibres in the trigeminal nerve. The clearest responses were seen in averaged, unrectified, monopolar surface electromyographic (EMG) recordings from active sternocleidomastoid muscles after stimulation of the infraorbital nerve. They consisted of a bilateral positive/negative (p19, n31) wave with a mean onset latency of 12.9 ms which corresponded to a period of inhibition in the underlying motor unit activity. Responses also could be seen in splenius and trapezius, but not in arm muscles. Stimuli to other branches of the trigeminal nerve (supraorbital or mental) did not produce such clear effects. The threshold for the reflex was relatively low (2–4 times perceptual threshold) and its size scaled with the level of background EMG in an approximately linear fashion. Responses to infraorbital stimulation did not interact with other short-latency inhibitory responses in the sternocleidomastoid muscle evoked by loud acoustic clicks or stimulation of the median nerve at the wrist. We suggest that the infraorbital response is part of a head withdrawal reflex involving an oligosynaptic trigemino-cervical system similar to that described in the cat.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Quasi-geostrophic model ; stratospheric major warming ; middle-atmospheric drag
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract A detailed test of a simple nonlinear quasi-geostrophic model of stratospheric sudden warming has been performed. The model is of Matsuno's type, which includes only the interaction between a single planetary wave and the zonal mean flow. Given this limitation, the 1979 major stratospheric sudden warming has been employed to test the ability of the model to simulate an actual warming event. This event proved to be an especially appropriate testing ground for the model, since its main assumptions were reasonably well satisfied by the observational evidence. Results from the model simulations demonstrate (a) that such simple quasi-geostrophic dynamics are completely capable of providing a rather detailed simulation of the 1979 major warming event and (b) that the ability of the model to simulate successfully the observed evolution of the warming is extremely sensitive to the magnitude and form of the dissipation mechanism that is assumed to operate in the middle atmosphere.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Pyridinoline, a non-reducible cross-link of collagen, was measured in the cortical bone of testectomized mice after repeated s.c. injections of estradiol benzoate. Pyridinoline content was increased significantly whereas the contents of hydroxylysine, and reducible cross-links remained unchanged.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0006-291X
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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