Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
Summary 1. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the two seeds established the presence of carbohydrates and/or glycosides, flavonoids, unsaturated sterols and/or triterpenes, saponins, trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins. In addition, it established the absence of cardenolides, tannins, alkaloids and oxidase enzyme. 2. Certain pharmacopoeial constants, including moisture, ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-soluble ash and crude fibre were determined. 3. The two seeds were subjected to successive extractions with different organic solvents such as petroleum ether (50–70° C), diethyl ether, chloroform and ethyl alcohol. The successive yields of extractives were determined. Examination of the crude extracts showed that petroleum ether extract contained sterols and/or triterpenes, while ether, chloroform, and ethyl alcohol extracts contained reducing substances. 4. General analysis of the two seeds for proteins, fats, carbohydrates, fibre and ash contents were carried out and the results were given in g/100 g dry seeds. Pigeon pea contained 25.2 g protein, 170 mg calcium and 8.9 mg iron. The Protein content of kidney bean was 23 g, while calcium and iron contents were 134 mg and 8.02 mg respectively. 5. Extractions of the proteins using different solvents such as cold water, hot Water, saline buffer pH 7 and sodium hydroxide pH 11 showed that sodium hydroxide was the best extractant. 6. The amino-acid content of the two seeds, whether raw or cooked, showed that they were deficient in methionine, cystine and tryptophan. Other essential amino acids were present in amounts higher than that given by the FAO provisional pattern. 7. Cooking the seeds by the popular methods used in the country resulted in an increase in the amounts of the amino acids, threonine, leucine and isoleucine, while the other amino acids present remained unchanged or decreased. It was also observed that cooking the seeds destroyed the trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins found in the two seeds.
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