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  • 1
    ISSN: 0378-4347
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: sulphinpyrazone ; metabolism ; single dose ; chronic treatment ; pharmacokinetics ; healthy volunteers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The pharmacokinetics of sulphinpyrazone and its major metabolites (sulfide, sulfone, p-hydroxysulfone and p-hydroxy-sulphinpyrazone) were investigated in 9 volunteers after a single oral dose as well as after chronic treatment for 23 days. Chronic administration of sulphinpyrazone, in comparison with a single oral dose, led to significant changes in plasma AUC (115.86 to 42.90 mg/l·h), in renal clearance (1.06 to 1.80l/h), in hepatic intrinsic clearance (319.0 to 598.0l/h), and in the unbound fraction in plasma 1.15 to 1.69%) and in tissue (2.73 to 1.31%). The volume of distribution changed from 20.24 to 52.041. The steady state concentrations predicted from the single dose were significantly higher than the values found after chronic treatment. The results suggest that sulphinpyrazone induces its own metabolism. The metabolism of the sulfone, p-hydroxysulfone and the p-hydroxy-sulphinpyrazone to further degradation products was also induced. Chronic treatment with sulphinpyrazone reduced the plasma AUC of the sulfide and caused a decrease in its elimination half-life (20.9 to 14.3 h). Since considerable amounts of the sulfide are formed in the G.I. tract, it is suggested that besides the induction of metabolism, bacteria which reduce sulphinpyrazone to the sulfide may also be responsible for the observed pharmacokinetic changes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: clonidine ; maprotiline ; interaction ; tricyclic antidepressants ; pharmacodynamic effects
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The well known interaction between tricyclic antidepressants and the centrally acting antihypertensive drug clonidine, namely impairment of the antihypertensive effect of clonidine, is thought to be related to blockade of noradrenaline uptake or competition at central alpha-receptors. The tetracyclic antidepressant maprotiline has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of noradrenaline uptake and it might, therefore, interfere with the antihypertensive action of clonidine. The possible interaction of clonidine and maprotiline was studied in 8 healthy subjects using doses in the therapeutic range. The study followed a double-blind, cross over design, in which clonidine alone (0.3 mg p.o.), clonidine (0.3 mg p.o.) plus maprotiline (100 mg in 4 divided doses over 22 h), maprotiline alone (100 mg in 4 divided doses over 22 h) and placebo were given by the double-dummy technique. Several pharmacodynamic parameters were measured for 12 h after administration of the drugs (supine and erect blood pressure, heart rate, saliva production and sedation). Concurrent administration of maprotiline did not alter the effect of clonidine and neither the size nor the time of the maximal response after clonidine were influenced by maprotiline. It is concluded that [1] blockade of noradrenaline uptake is not associated with the interaction of tricyclic antidepressants and clonidine, and [2] maprotiline should be preferred to tricyclic antidepressants in hypertensive patients on clonidine therapy if a concomitant depressive illness has to be treated.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: ceftizoxime ; cephalosporins ; renal excretion ; tubular reabsorption ; tubular secretion ; healthy volunteers ; biliary excretion ; clearance studies
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The kinetics of ceftizoxime, a newly developed cephalosporin, were evaluated in 6 healthy subjects, with respect to its excretory pathways especially by the biliary route. Total, renal and biliary clearance were determined at two different steady states. Steady state was achieved by constant intravenous infusion (604.1 mg/h) over 6 h after an initial loading dose (750 mg); 1.5 h after discontinuation of that infusion, a further infusion was commenced at a lower rate (284 mg/h) over 3 h, the second steady state being reached 0.5 to 1.0 h later. The drug was mainly excreted by the kidneys (56.7 to 92.9% of the dose). Biliary excretion, measured by the duodenal perfusion and marker dilution technique, was low (0.2 to 7.8% of the dose). Urinary and biliary excretion as well as total clearance were not dose-dependent. However, there was pronounced interindividual variation in total (35.2 to 236 ml/min) and renal clearance (10.6 to 208 ml/min), which could both be explained by varying interindividual urinary flow rates (mean flow rate: 0.99 ml/min to 3.14 ml/min). Intraindividual variation in renal clearance was less pronounced, but in the same subject changes in renal clearance were correlated with changes in urinary flow rate. From the varying renal clearance, which exceeded the glomerular filtration rate at high urinary flow rates and was below it at low urinary flow rates, it can be concluded that, in addition to glomerular filtration, tubular secretion and tubular reabsorption are involved in the renal excretion of ceftizoxime. The half-life calculated from two point estimates after discontinuation of the infusion at the higher rate tended to be longer in subjects with high total clearance (e. g. 1.4 h, clearance 223 ml/min) and shorter in subjects with low total clearance (e.g. 0.85 h, clearance 35.2 ml/min). From this it is concluded that the true half-life was not observed after discontinuation of the infusion.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: levodopa ; intestinal absorption ; small intestine ; bioavailability ; benserazide ; presystemic clearance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In four healthy subjects the intestinal absorption of levodopa (l-dopa) was investigated by measuring the plasma concentration of the amino acid following the administration of l-dopa at three different sites in the small intestine. In order to minimize presystemic clearance of l-dopa, the subjects were pretreated with the peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor benserazide 3×50 mg every 8 h on the previous day and 1×50 mg 2 h prior to administration of the l-dopa. L-dopa 100 mg dissolved in 0.05 N HCl and 50 mg benserazide dissolved in 0.05 N HCl were coadministered. Under these conditions no difference in tmax, cmax or AUC of l-dopa was observed between administration of the drug into the proximal or the distal part of duodenum, or into the upper part of jejunum. The results indicate that in healthy subjects, during inhibition of peripheral decarboxylase, the rate and extent of l-dopa absorption does not differ at any site in the upper small intestine.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: theophylline ; erythromycin ; interaction ; metabolism ; pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In 11 healthy volunteers the kinetics of theophylline and the plasma levels and the urinary excretion of its metabolites were studied before and after treatment with erythromycin for 10 days. Theophylline was administered as an intravenous bolus injection (280 mg) followed by a constant intravenous infusion (23.8±4.1 mg/h) for 6 hours. The total clearance of theophylline at steady-state (63.4±9.9 vs 63.8±14.4 ml/min, before vs after erythromycin treatment) and the elimination half-life after cessation of the infusion (6.7±2.6 vs 7.5±1.8 h, before vs after treatment) did not change during the treatment with erythromycin. No difference in the formation of metabolites before and after treatment with erythromycin was detected; the findings in urine were 40.4±5.0 vs 42.1±5.4% 1,3-dimethyluric acid, 29.6±4.6 vs 30.1±5.9% 1-methyluric acid and 13.4±3.5 vs 12.5±2.2% 3-methylxanthine before and after erythromycin treatment, respectively. It is concluded that a clinically relevant interaction between erythromycin and theophylline does not occur.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: dopamine ; pharmacokinetics ; pharmacodynamics ; adrenaline plasma level ; noradrenaline plasma level ; blood pressure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The pharmacokinetics and the pharmacodynamic action of dopamine were investigated in 5 healthy subjects. Dopamine was given in different doses (200, 400 and 800 µg/min) by constant intravenous infusion over 90 min. In order to control the influence of the procedure on the measured parameters the subjects also received a similar infusion of saline. Dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline levels in plasma were followed for up to 6 h after the infusion, and arterial pressure and heart rate were monitored. Dopamine reached a steady state level within 15 to 30 min after commencement of the infusion; the steady state levels averaged 36.5 µg/l at 200 µg/min, 73.8 µg/l at 400 µg/min and 207 µg/l at 800 µg/min. The corresponding total clearances were 5.8 l/ min, 5.51/min and 3.9 l/min suggesting non-linear kinetics. The kinetics could not be described by compartmental model. Noradrenaline and adrenaline levels were found to be elevated during infusion of dopamine. Noradrenaline had returned to its pretreatment level within 15 to 30 min after cessation of the infusion, whereas the adrenaline level did not return to the pretreatment value within the observation period. Heart rate was increased by the dose of 400 µg/min, and the systolic and mean arterial pressures were elevated, whereas distolic blood pressure remained unchanged. Elevated systolic blood pressure was better correlated with plasma dopamine than with noradrenaline concentration. This finding, in conjunction with the unchanged diastolic blood pressure, indicates that elevation of the systolic blood pressure is a direct rather than an indirect effect of dopamine. The increased heart rate was not correlated with the dopamine level.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Fenoterol ; pharmacokinetics, non-linearity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary We have studied the pharmacokinetics of fenoterol in healthy women during and after a 3 h intravenous infusion of different doses within the therapeutic range for tocolysis (0.5 μg·min−1, 1.0 μg·min−1, and 2.0 μg·min−1). A specific and sensitive radioimmuno-assay was used for the determination of fenoterol. For compartmental analysis the plasma concentration time data were fitted with the TOPFIT program, assuming two exponentials. The total clearance of fenoterol increased with dose (1299 ml·min−1 at 0.5 μg·min−1, 1483 ml·min−1 at 1.0 μg·min−1, and 1924 ml·min−1 at 2.0 μg·min−1), as did the apparent volume of distribution (from 491 at the lowest to 851 at the highest dose). In contrast, the apparent half-lives were not dose-dependent, with t1/2·λ 1 4.8 min and t1/2·λ 2 52 min.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Key words Fenoterol ; Tachycardia ; Hypokalaemia; β2-adrenoceptor agonist ; NONMEM ; pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective: To analyse fenoterol-induced tachycardia and hypokalaemia, the most important and most frequent adverse effects of tocolytic therapy with β2-adrenoceptor agonists in females of childbearing age. Methods: The study was performed as a double blind, randomised, placebo controlled, cross over trial. Seven healthy women aged 22–38 y, received intravenous infusions of fenoterol at 3 different rates within the therapeutic range for tocolysis (0.5,1.0, and 2.0 μg⋅min−1) and placebo. The time courses of the plasma concentrations of fenoterol and potassium, and the heart rate were analysed with mixed effects pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) modeling using NONMEM. Results: The plasma concentration-time course followed a linear two compartment model. Fenoterol-induced tachycardia was described by a linear concentration-effect model with baseline. The estimated baseline and slope parameters were 78 beats⋅min−1 and 0.032 beats⋅min−1⋅μg−1⋅l, respectively. Fenoterol-induced hypokalaemia could be described by a physiological indirect response model including feedback; the Estimated basal plasma potassium concentration was 3.93 mmol⋅l−1 and the slope factor for the fenoterol-induced relative increase in the efflux of potassium from the extracellular space was 6.22*10−4 ng⋅l−1. Conclusion: The estimated population parameters permitted calculation of the expected time course of tachycardia and hypokalaemia in women after the initiation of tocolysis with fenoterol over the clinically relevant concentration range, and prediction of its variability. Based on simulation, our model predicted that a continous infusion of 2.0 μg⋅min−1 (highest rate examined) would increase heart rate to 113 beats⋅min−1 at steady state and lower the plasma potassium concentration to 2.77 mmol⋅l−1 1.5 h after beginning the infusion. Thereafter, the plasma potassium concentration would slowly return to normal.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Fenoterol ; Pregnancy ; pharmacokinetics ; premature labour
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The pharmacokinetics of the β2-adrenergic drug fenoterol, which is used as a tocolytic agent in pregnancy, has been investigated in pregnant (n=9) and nonpregnant (n=5) women during a constant rate intravenous infusion. Clearance and mean residence time were found to be 1990 (1879/2220; Median, Q25/Q75) ml/min and 9.2 (8.0/14.0) min in the pregnant and 2126 (1915/2130) ml/min and 16.6 (16.5/32.1) min in the nonpregnant women, respectively. In addition, fenoterol clearance was estimated in 88 women from a single blood sample collected at steady state during IV therapy and the effect of gestational age on clearance was studied. Clearance displayed large inter-individual variation. There was no apparent correlation between clearance and gestational age. We conclude that there is no need to adjust the dose on pharmacokinetic grounds in the course of pregnancy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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