Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are genetic defects in the glycoconjugate biosynthesis. 〉100 types of CDG are known, most of them cause multi-organ diseases. Here we describe a boy whose leading symptoms comprise cutis laxa, pancreatic insufficiency and hepatosplenomegaly. Whole exome sequencing identified the novel hemizygous mutation c.542T〉G (p.L181R) in the X-linked ATP6AP1, an accessory protein of the mammalian vacuolar H(+)-ATPase, which led to a general N-glycosylation deficiency. Studies of serum N-glycans revealed reduction of complex sialylated and appearance of truncated diantennary structures. Proliferation of the patient's fibroblasts was significantly reduced and doubling time prolonged. Additionally, there were alterations in the fibroblasts' amino acid levels and the acylcarnitine composition. Especially, short-chain species were reduced, whereas several medium- to long-chain acylcarnitines (C14-OH to C18) were elevated. Investigation of the main lipid classes revealed that total cholesterol was significantly enriched in the patient's fibroblasts at the expense of phophatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Within the minor lipid species, hexosylceramide was reduced, while its immediate precursor ceramide was increased. Since catalase activity and ACOX3 expression in peroxisomes were reduced, we assume an ATP6AP1-dependent impact on the beta-oxidation of fatty acids. These results help to understand the complex clinical characteristics of this new patient.
Type of Publication:
Journal article published