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  • 1
    facet.materialart.
    Stuttgart : Georg Thieme
    Call number: B040:198 ; M300:96
    Keywords: Microbiology
    Pages: xx, 718 p.
    Edition: 3., komplett überarb. u. erw. Aufl.
    ISBN: 9783131253132
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    B040:198 departmental collection or stack – please contact the library
    M300:96 departmental collection or stack – please contact the library
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  • 2
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    Stuttgart : Thieme
    Call number: QR46:18(7)
    Keywords: Microbiology
    Notes: For online access to this volume please contact the library staff in room D124 (phone 3661, e-mail: http://www.dkfz.de/de/zbib/mitarbeiter/kontakt/fernleihe.php)
    Pages: xx, 718 p.
    Edition: 7., vollst. überarb. u. erw. Aufl.
    ISBN: 9783132423558
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    QR46:18(7) available
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Infection 16 (1988), S. S79 
    ISSN: 1439-0973
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: An understanding of the complex interactions between pathogenic microbes and their host must include the identification of gene expression patterns during infection. To detect the activation of virulence genes in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans in vivo by host signals, we devised a reporter system that is based on FLP-mediated genetic recombination. The FLP gene, encoding the site-specific recombinase FLP, was genetically modified for expression in C. albicans and fused to the promoter of the SAP2 gene that codes for one of the secreted aspartic proteinases, which are putative virulence factors of C. albicans. The SAP2P–FLP fusion was integrated into one of the SAP2 alleles in a strain that contained a deletable marker that conferred resistance to mycophenolic acid and was flanked by direct repeats of the FLP recognition target (FRT). Using this reporter system, a transient gene induction could be monitored at the level of single cells by the mycophenolic acid-sensitive phenotype of the colonies generated from such cells after FLP-mediated marker excision. In two mouse models of disseminated candidiasis, SAP2 expression was not observed in the initial phase of infection, but the SAP2 gene was strongly induced after dissemination into deep organs. In contrast, in a mouse model of oesophageal candidiasis in which dissemination into internal organs did not occur, no SAP2 expression was detected at any time. Our results support a role of the SAP2 gene in the late stages of an infection, after fungal spread into deep tissue. This new in vivo expression technology (IVET) for a human fungal pathogen allows the detection of virulence gene induction at different stages of an infection, and therefore provides clues about the role of these genes in the disease process.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0991
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract After primary infection of mice withSalmonella typhimurium, the initial, nonspecific phase of resistance was not affected by treatment with cyclosporin A. This agent, when given during but not when given long before a secondary infection, removed considerably but not completely the expression of acquired immunity. This demonstrates again that microorganisms that are opposed mainly by T-lymphocyte-dependent immunity may represent a serious danger for patients treated with cyclosporin A.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1574-695X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Since overt listeriosis occurs mainly in immunocompromised persons it is quite consistent to try to restore the hampered defence system by supportive measurements. For direct antimicrobial treatment a series of different antibiotics is available, since Listeria strains isolated from patients are in general susceptible to a wide range of antibiotics, except fosfomycin, quinolones and cephalosporins of the third generation, although a few exceptional strains exist. Unfortunately, most antibiotics are not bactericidal for Listeria. Drug combinations may exert a synergistic effect. Furthermore, the efficacy of therapy is limited by the fact of intracellular habitat of pathogenic Listeria. Few agents, such as macrolides and quinolones, are accumulated within host cells and may attack the intracellular Listeriae. The clinical experience shows that the combination of amoxicillin and gentamicin is the best option.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: ATP-driven transport proteins belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily perform important functions in cell metabolism and detoxification. Compounds can be actively transported across membranes, including the plasma membrane or organellar membranes. The vacuole is an important organelle in fungal cells required for compartmentalization of metabolites as well as toxic substances. Sequestration into the vacuole is often energy-dependent. We present the first isolation and molecular analysis of a vacuolar ABC transporter gene in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans. The protein encoded by the MLT1 gene is highly similar to Multiple Drug Resistance-associated Protein (MRP)-like transporters of yeast and higher organisms that form the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)/MRP subfamily of ABC transporters, a class of proteins so far not characterized in C. albicans. MLT1 expression is extensively growth phase-regulated, and gene transcripts are inducible by metabolic poisons. Gene replacement mutants generated in wild-type C. albicans with the dominant selection marker MPAR showed a profound reduction in virulence in a mouse peritonitis model that was reversed by complementation with an intact MLT1 gene. Hence, this report provides primary evidence for the involvement of vacuolar ABC transporters in fungal virulence.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The yeast Candida albicans is a harmless colonizer of mucosal surfaces in healthy people but can become a serious pathogen in immunocompromised patients, causing superficial as well as systemic infections. The evolution of gene families encoding pathogenicity-related functions, like adhesins and secreted aspartic proteinases (Saps), which are differentially induced by host signals at various stages of colonization and infection, may have allowed C. albicans an optimal adaptation to many different host niches. We found that even the two alleles of a single gene can be differentially regulated in the diploid C. albicans. In the model strain SC5314, the in vitro expression of one of the two SAP2 alleles, SAP2-1, depended on the presence of a functional SAP2-2 allele. In contrast, inactivation of SAP2-1 did not in-fluence the expression of SAP2-2. The proteinase encoded by the SAP2-2 allele serves as a signal sensor and amplifier to enhance its own expression as well as to induce the SAP2-1 allele to achieve maximal proteolytic activity under appropriate conditions. Using in vivo expression technology, we could demonstrate that the SAP2-1 allele is significantly activated only in the late stages of systemic candidiasis in mice, whereas the SAP2-2 allele is induced much earlier. The differential regulation of the two SAP2 alleles was due to differences in their pro-moters, which contained a variable number of two pentameric nucleotide repeats. Mutations that re-duced or increased the copy number of these repeats diminished the inducibility of the SAP2 promoter during infection but not in vitro, suggesting that the mutations affected interactions of regulatory factors that are necessary for SAP2 activation in vivo but dispensable for its induction in vitro. Therefore, the signals and signal transduction pathways that mediate SAP2 expression within certain host niches may differ from those that activate the gene in vitro. In addition to the generation of gene families whose members exhibit functional and regulatory diversification, C. albicans seems to use its diploid genome to create further variability and host adaptation by differential evolution of even the two alleles of a single gene.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    FEMS microbiology letters 84 (1991), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The heterogeneity of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) of five Listeria species was investigated. Similarities in the overall PBP pattern were found between those of L. welshimeri and L. innocua, and between L. ivanovii and L. seeligeri, and all were distinct from the PBPs of L. monocytogenes. In all species, however, the primary target for β-lactam antibiotics, as identified in L. monocytogenes recently, appeared highly conserved. In addition, the low-Mr PBP 5 was biochemically very similar in all strains and contained identical binding properties to β-lactam compounds, suggesting that this protein may play an important role. All other PBPs varied considerably in their penicilloyl-peptide pattern, indicating differences in their amino acid sequences.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 297 (1982), S. 233-234 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] L. monocytogenes, serotype 4b, was cultured in tryptose broth at 37 C for 16h. The virulence of the strain was maintained by continuous passage in mice of the same strain as used for the experiments. Viable counts of bacteria in broth, dilutions and spleen homogenates were determined using 10-fold ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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