Key words 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract Preclinical studies of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CdA) against solid tumors in the human tumor cloning assay and evidence that 2-CdA is active against slow-growing or resting tumor cells have stimulated interest in the clinical activity of this agent against solid tumors. This study sought to estimate the maximum tolerated dose, dose-limiting toxicity, and plasma and urine pharmacokinetics accompanying the intravenous administration of 2-CdA by 120-h continuous infusion in patients with solid tumors. Treated patients were also assessed for other toxicities of therapy and for antitumor response. A total of 23 patients received 35 courses of treatment given at doses of 3.5, 5.3, 6.5 and 8.1 mg/m2 per day by continuous intravenous infusion for 5 days and repeated every 28 days. Blood and urine specimens were collected before, during, and after drug infusion. The dose-limiting toxicity at 8.1 mg/m2 per day manifested as granulocytopenia in 2 of 5 patients (3 of 7 courses of treatment) and as thrombocytopenia in 3 of 5 patients (3 of 7 courses of treatment). At the dose levels of 6.5 and 8.1 mg/m2 per day, recovery from thrombocytopenia was often delayed. Severe lymphocytopenia (〈1,000/μl) was observed at all dose levels of 2-CdA. Dose-related anemia and leukopenia were observed and were infrequently severe. Nonhematological toxicities were confined to mild-to-moderate nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and anorexia. Fever of 37°–40°C was induced during drug infusion in 19 patients. No antitumor response was observed. Average plasma concentrations at steady-state (Cpss) ranged from 3 ng/ml at the initial dose level to 13 ng/ml at the dose level of 8.1 mg/m2 per day. Both the Cpss and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) were proportional to the dose. A relationship was observed between the percentage of change in absolute neutrophil count and the AUC. Renal excretion accounted for only 18% of the elimination of 2-CdA over the 5-day infusion period. The maximum tolerated dose for 2-CdA given by 5-day continuous infusion was 8.1 mg/m2 per day in this study. The recommended dose on this schedule for phase II studies is 6.5 mg/m2 per day. Granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia were dose-limiting. No antitumor activity was observed during this study. On the basis of the plasma concentrations of 2-CdA observed, it is unlikely that this schedule of drug administration will permit achievement of the concentrations consistent with antitumor activity observed in preclinical studies.
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