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  • 1
    Keywords: Medicine ; Neurosciences ; Behavioral Sciences ; Animal Physiology ; Biomedicine ; Neurosciences ; Behavioral Sciences ; Animal Physiology ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Part I Evolution of the Brain -- 1 An overview of brain evolution: lobe-finned fish vs ray-finned fish -- 2 The Origins of the Bird Brain: Multiple Pulses of Cerebral Expansion in Evolution -- 3 The evolution of mammalian brains from early mammals to present-day primates -- 4 Developmental sequences predict multiple types of increased intra-connectivity in evolution: a comparative analysis of developmental timing, gene expression, neuron numbers, and diffusion MR tractography -- Part II Evolution of Cognition -- 5 The Evolution of Cognitive Brains in Non-mammals -- 6 Evolution of Cognitive Brains: Mammals -- 7 On the Matter of Mind: Neural Complexity and Functional Dynamics of the Human Brain -- 8 Behavioural, cognitive, and neuronal changes in the acquisition of tool use -- 9 Great ape social attention -- 10 Evolution of vocal communication: From animal calls to human speech -- 11 Integration Hypothesis: A Parallel Model of Language Development in Evolution -- Part III Evolution of Emotion -- 12 Evolution of the emotional brain -- 13 Evolutionary origin of empathy and inequality aversion
    Abstract: This book presents a new view on the evolution of the brain, cognition, and emotion. Around a half-century ago, Professor Harry Jerison published a seminal book entitled Evolution of the Brain and Intelligence. Since then, there has been a series of dramatic methodological and conceptual changes which have led to many new insights into the understanding of brain evolution and cognition. This book is particularly focused on three significant aspects of such changes. First, taking advantage of a new integrated approach called evolutionary developmental biology or Evo/Devo, researchers have started to look into vertebrate brain evolution from the developmental perspective. Second, comparative neuroanatomists have accumulated a large amount of information about the brains of diverse animal groups to refute the old-fashioned idea that vertebrate brains evolved linearly from non-mammals to mammals. Third, comparative behavioral studies have demonstrated that sophisticated cognition and emotion are not unique to some primates but are also found in many non-primate and even non-mammalian species. This work will appeal to a wide readership in such fields as neuroscience, cognitive science, and behavioral science
    Pages: X, 299 p. 76 illus., 25 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9784431565598
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-079X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: To investigate whether free melatonin may be better suited to reveal age-related changes, we studied the circadian rhythm alterations in saliva melatonin levels during aging. Special attention was paid to the question as to how the free melatonin rhythms change in aging and when such changes take place. A total of 52 healthy volunteers participated in the study consisting of young, middle-aged, old and the oldest groups. In each subject, a total of 12 time-point salivary melatonin samples was taken over 24 hr. Of the 52 data sets, 51 exhibited significant circadian rhythm over 24 hr by using the base cosine function analysis to fit the data. A clear circadian rhythm of salivary melatonin was present in all age groups. The decline in nocturnal peak levels (amplitude) in salivary melatonin was found in old and the oldest subjects. Both the old and the oldest subjects showed an increased daytime (baseline) melatonin levels. The off-set melatonin levels were more than two times higher in the oldest group than that in the other groups indicating a delayed phase of salivary melatonin. Most strikingly, we found that a step-wise decrease in the circadian rhythms of saliva melatonin occurred early in life, around 40 yr of ages. The middle-aged subjects had only 60% of the amplitude of the young subjects. In addition, the middle-aged subjects showed the longest peak levels duration and the lowest daytime melatonin levels. The present study showed that the alterations in the circadian rhythms of salivary melatonin begin during middle-age. Our results showed that salivary melatonin measurement is a reliable, sensitive and easy method to monitor changes in the circadian rhythms of melatonin during the course of aging.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-079X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Neuropathology is the most reliable criterion for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease (AD). A well-established system for staging the spread of neuropathological changes in AD is available. The clinical use of a biomarker that reflects the neuropathological change occurring in brain tissue has not yet been established. Melatonin is a product that plays not only a major role in the regulation of the circadian rhythms but may also exert neuroprotective effects in AD. Melatonin levels were determined in ventricular postmortem cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 121 subjects. Braak staging and a modified Braak staging for cortex (MBSC) were used to evaluate the severity of AD neuropathology. The present study revealed that not only the Braak stages of AD, but also the MBSC were negatively correlated with CSF melatonin levels. By using MBSC, we now demonstrate for the first time that CSF melatonin levels were significantly decreased in the aged individuals with early neuropathological changes in the temporal cortex, where the AD process starts. Those individuals that did not have any neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) or neuritic plaque (NP) in the temporal cortex, had much higher melatonin levels (287 ± 68 and 280 ± 64 pg/mL, respectively) than those individuals that had a few NFTs and NPs (82 ± 4 and 39 ± 8 pg/mL, respectively) in the temporal cortex. These results suggest that the decrease in CSF melatonin levels may be an early event in the development of AD possibly occurring even before the clinical symptoms.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 378 (1995), S. 68-70 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Investigation of the genetics, gonads, genitalia or hormone level of transsexuals has not, so far, produced any results that explain their status1'2. In experimental animals, however, the same gonadal hormones that prenatally determine the morphology of the genitalia also influence the morphology ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of neurology 231 (1984), S. 87-93 
    ISSN: 1432-1459
    Keywords: Micrencephaly ; Brain growth ; Head circumference ; Cerebral dystrophy ; Neural aging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Sowohl das Gehirngewicht wie der Kopfumfang wurden in einer Population mit micrencephalen Patienten analysiert und in Beziehung gesetzt zum Alter, zur Körpergröße, zum Geschlecht sowie zu den Standardmassen bei Normalen. Es wird eine quantitative Definition der Micrencephalie vorgeschlagen, die sich auf die erwähnten Meßresultate stützten. Es werden Hinweise dafür geliefert, daß micrencephale Individuen während der Adoleszenz ein signifikant niedrigeres Hirngewicht als in der frühen Kindheit aufweisen und daß somit die Gehirndystrophie während des Erwachsenenalters weiterschreitet. Schließlich führt sie bei mehr als 85% der Männer und 78% der Frauen vor Erreichen des 30. Lebensjahres zum Tode. Die Abnahme des Gehirngewichtes nach dem Alter von etwa 3 bis 5 Jahren wird nicht von einer parallelen Verminderung des Kopfumfanges begleitet. Das Gehirn nimmt also bei älteren Micrencephalen nicht mehr das gesamte Volumen der Schädelhöhle ein. Daraus ergibt sich, daß der Kopfumfang bei der Micrencephalie ein ungeeigneter Parameter zum Schätzen des Gehirnvolumens ist.
    Notes: Summary Brain weight and head circumference in micrencephalic patients were analysed as a function of age, height and sex in relation to normal human standards. A quantitative definition of micrencephaly is proposed, which is based on these analyses. Evidence is presented, furthermore, that micrencephalics have a significantly lower brain weight in adolescence than in early childhood, and that this cerebral dystrophy continues throughout adulthood, leading to death in more than 85% of the males and 78% of the females before they reach the age of 30 years. Since this decline in brain weight after approximately 3–5 years of age is not accompanied by a similar reduction in head circumference, the brains of elderly micrencephalic patients no longer occupy the entire cranial cavity. It is evident, therefore, that head circumference in the case of micrencephaly is an unsuitable parameter for estimating brain size.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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