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  • 1
    Keywords: CELLS ; Germany ; human ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; desmoplakin ; desmosome ; DIFFERENTIATION ; TISSUE ; HEART ; MARKER ; RAT ; TISSUES ; MEMBERS ; ASSOCIATION ; ALPHA ; BONE-MARROW ; MOUSE ; Jun ; beta-catenin ; ADHESION MOLECULE ; HEMATOPOIETIC STEM-CELLS ; DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY ; KIDNEY EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; GEL-ELECTROPHORESIS ; JUNCTIONS ; RE ; RIGHT-VENTRICULAR CARDIOMYOPATHY ; stem cells ; N-CADHERIN ; RELEVANCE ; cardiomyopathies ; CARDIOMYOPATHY ; adhering junction ; ALPHA-T-CATENIN ; fascia adhaerens ; immunoelectron microscopy ; intercalated disk ; INTERCELLULAR ADHERENS JUNCTIONS ; REGENERATE INFARCTED MYOCARDIUM ; regeneration
    Abstract: Using immunofluorescence histochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy on sections through myocardiac tissues of diverse mammalian (human, cow, rat, mouse) and fish species we show that both desmosomal and fascia adhaerens proteins identified by gel electrophoresis and immunoblot occur in the area composita, the by far major type of plaque-bearing junctions of the intercalated disks (IDs) connecting cardiomyocytes. Specifically, we demonstrate that desmoplakin and the other desmosomal proteins occur in these junctions, together with N-cadherin, cadherin-11, alpha- and beta-catenin as well as vinculin, afadin and proteins p120(ctn), ARVCF, p0071, and ZO-1, suggestive of colocalization. We conclude that the predominant type of adhering junction present in IDs is a junction sui generis, termed area composita, that is characterized by an unusually high molecular complexity and an intimate association of molecules of both ensembles, the desmosomal one and the fascia adhaerens category. We discuss possible myocardium-specific, complex-forming interactions between members of the two ensembles and the relevance of our findings for the formation and functioning of the heart and for the understanding of hereditary and other cardiomyopathies. We further propose to use this highly characteristic area composita ensemble of molecules as cardiomyocyte markers for the monitoring of cardiomyogenesis, cardiomyocyte regeneration and possible cardiomyocyte differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells. (c) 2006 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16600422
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    Abstract: The plakophilins, members of the armadillo-repeat family, consist of three different proteins (PKP1-3) that are specifically recruited to desmosomal plaques in a highly cell type-specific manner. Using immunofluorescence, immunoelectron microscopy, and immunoblot, we found that all three plakophilins occurred in luminal and basal cells of the pseudostratified prostate epithelium. The analysis of 135 cases of prostatic adenocarcinomas grouped into tumors with low (Gleason score 〈 or = 6), intermediate (Gleason score 7), and high Gleason score (8 〈 or = Gleason score 〈 or = 10) showed that the expression of PKP1 was reduced or lost in adenocarcinomas with high Gleason scores. The expression of PKP2 was unchanged in all prostatic adenocarcinomas analyzed. In contrast, PKP3 expression was increased in carcinomas with high Gleason scores in comparison with carcinomas with low Gleason scores. In DU 145 cell lines with either overexpression or knockdown of PKP3, both imbalances resulted in fewer desmosomal cell contacts. In addition, overexpression of PKP3 in DU 145 cells led to an augmentation in proliferation rate. Our data imply that both loss of PKP1 and up-regulation of PKP3 expression are biologically important events in prostate cancer and are associated with a more aggressive phenotype.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20348237
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  • 4
    Keywords: CELLS ; carcinoma ; Germany ; MICROSCOPY ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; TISSUE ; COMPLEXES ; kidney ; FAMILY ; MARKER ; MOUSE ; MARKERS ; EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; CARCINOMAS ; pathology ; CATENIN ; E-cadherin ; renal cell carcinoma ; DESMOSOMAL PLAQUE ; distal tubule ; CYTOPLASMIC PARTICLES ; p120-subfamily ; nephron ; Arm-repeat protein ; CELL-ADHESION MOLECULES ; PKP4
    Abstract: Protein p0071 is a member of the p120-subfamily of armadillo proteins and is well known as a junctional plaque component involved in cell-cell adhesion, especially in adherens junctions. By systematic immunohistochemical analysis of mouse and human kidney tissues, p0071 was prominently detected in distinct kidney tubules. Upon double-labeling immunolocalization experiments with segment-specific markers, p0071 was predominantly localized in distal straight and convoluted tubules and to a lesser extent in proximal tubules, in the ascending thin limb of loop of Henle and in the collecting ducts. In capillaries of the kidney, p0071 co-localized with VE-cadherin an endothelium-specific cadherin. Protein p0071 was also detected in both, renal cell carcinomas derived from distal tubules and in maturing nephrons of early mouse developmental stages. Immunoblotting of total extracts of cultured cells of renal origin showed that p0071 was detected in all human and murine cells analyzed. Upon immunolocalization, p0071 was observed in adherens junctions but also in distinct cytoplasmic structures at the cell periphery of cultured cells. Possible structural and functional roles of p0071 are suggested by its preferential occurrence in distinct tubule segments, and its potential use as a cytodiagnostic cell type marker in renal pathology is discussed
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19830446
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  • 5
    Keywords: CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ; CELL-ADHESION ; EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; beta-catenin ; specificity ; ACTIN CYTOSKELETON ; FAMILIES ; DESMOSOMAL PLAQUE ; P120 CATENIN ; PROTEIN PLAKOPHILIN-2 ; RHO-FAMILY GTPASES ; FRAGILITY-SYNDROME
    Abstract: The p120-catenin family has undergone a significant expansion during the evolution of vertebrates, resulting in varied functions that have yet to be discerned or fully characterized. Likewise, members of the plakophilins, a related catenin subfamily, are found throughout the cell with little known about their functions outside the desmosomal plaque. While the plakophilin-3 (Pkp3) knockout mouse resulted in skin defects, we find larger, including lethal effects following its depletion in Xenopus. Pkp3, unlike some other characterized catenins in amphibians, does not have significant maternal deposits of mRNA. However, during embryogenesis, two Pkp3 protein products whose temporal expression is partially complimentary become expressed. Only the smaller of these products is found in adult Xenopus tissues, with an expression pattern exhibiting distinctions as well as overlaps with those observed in mammalian studies. We determined that Xenopus Pkp3 depletion causes a skin fragility phenotype in keeping with the mouse knockout, but more novel, Xenopus tailbud embryos are hyposensitive to touch even in embryos lacking outward discernable phenotypes, and we additionally resolved disruptions in certain peripheral neural structures, altered establishment and migration of neural crest, and defects in ectodermal multiciliated cells. The use of two distinct morpholinos, as well as rescue approaches, indicated the specificity of these effects. Our results point to the requirement of Pkp3 in amphibian embryogenesis, with functional roles in a number of tissue types
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22496792
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  • 6
    Keywords: GENE-EXPRESSION ; PLAQUE PROTEIN ; MESSENGER-RNA ; SQUAMOUS-CELL CARCINOMA ; nonsense-mediated decay ; STRESS GRANULES ; X-RELATED PROTEIN ; EXON-JUNCTION COMPLEX ; POLY(A)-BINDING PROTEINS ; DESMOSOMAL PLAKOPHILINS
    Abstract: Both plakophilins (PKP) 1 and 3 play a role in the progression of prostate cancer. The RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) GAP-SH3-binding protein (G3BP), fragile-X-related protein 1 (FXR1), poly(A)-binding protein, cytoplasmic 1 (PABPC1), and up-frameshift factor 1 (UPF1) are associated with PKP3. All these RBPs have an impact on RNA metabolism. Until recently, the PKP-associated RBPs have not been analyzed in prostate cancer. In the current study, we showed by affinity purification that the PKP3-associated RBPs were also binding partners of PKP1. We examined the expression of PKP1/3-associated RBPs and PKP1/3 in prostate cell lines, tumor-free prostate, and 136 prostatic adenocarcinomas by immunofluorescence and immunoblot. All four RBPs G3BP, FXR1, UPF1, and PABPC1 were expressed in the glandular epithelium of the normal prostate. PKP1 and FXR1 were strongly reduced in tumor tissues with Gleason score 〉7 and diminished expression of PKP1 and FXR1 also appeared to be associated with a metastatic phenotype. Additionally, the predominant nuclear localization of UPF1 in normal glandular cells and low grade tumors was switched to a more cytoplasmic pattern in carcinomas with Gleason score 〉7. Our findings suggest that PKP1 and FXR1 may have a tumor-suppressive function and are downregulated in more aggressive tumors. Collectively, PKP1/3-associated RBPs FXR1 and UPF1 may have a functional role in prostate cancer progression and metastasis and highlight the potential importance of posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression and nonsense-mediated decay in cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23881279
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  • 7
    Keywords: LYMPHOMA ; thymus
    Abstract: Due to its profound therapeutic consequences, the distinction between thymoma and T-lymphoblastic lymphoma in needle biopsies is one of the most challenging in mediastinal pathology. One essential diagnostic criterion favouring thymoma is the demonstration of increased numbers of keratin-positive epithelial cells by immunohistochemistry. Loss of keratin expression in neoplastic epithelial cells could lead to detrimental misdiagnoses. We here describe a series of 14 thymic epithelial tumours (11 type B2 and B3 thymomas, 3 thymic carcinomas) with loss of expression of one or more keratins. Cases were analysed for expression of various keratins and desmosomal proteins by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence and compared with 45 unselected type B thymomas and 24 thymic carcinomas arranged in a multitissue histological array. All 14 cases showed highly reduced expression of at least one keratin, three cases were completely negative for all keratins studied. Of the 14 cases, 13 showed strong nuclear expression of p63. Expression of desmosomal proteins was preserved, suggesting intact cell contact structures. Loss of expression of broad-spectrum-keratins and K19 was observed in 3 and 5 % of unselected thymomas and in 30 and 60 % of thymic carcinomas. A proportion of keratin-depleted thymomas contained giant cells, reminiscent of thymic nurse cells. Loss of keratin expression in type B2 and B3 thymomas is an important diagnostic pitfall in the differential diagnosis with T-lymphoblastic lymphoma and can be expected in 5 % of cases. A panel of epithelial markers including p63 is warranted to ensure correct diagnosis of keratin-negative mediastinal tumours.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24923897
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  • 8
    Abstract: Plakophilin (PKP) 1 is frequently downregulated in prostate cancer and therefore may play a tumor-suppressive role. In the present study, we stably knocked down PKP1 in the non-neoplastic, prostatic BPH-1 cell line. In the PKP1-deficient cells, the expression of keratin 14 was lost, and the apoptosis rate was significantly reduced indicating that the cells acquired new biological capabilities. Moreover, we analyzed the gene expression profile of the PKP1-deficient BPH-1 cells. Among the genes that were significantly altered upon PKP1 knockdown, we noticed several extracellular matrix (ECM)-related genes and identified sparc/osteonectin, cwcv, and kazal-like domains proteoglycan 1 (SPOCK1/testican-1) as a gene of interest. SPOCK1 is a component of the ECM and belongs to a matricellular protein family named secreted protein, acidic, cysteine-rich (SPARC). The role of SPOCK1 in prostate cancer has not been clearly elucidated. We analyzed SPOCK1 mRNA expression levels in different cancer databases and characterized its expression in 136 prostatic adenocarcinomas by immunohistochemistry and western blot. SPOCK1 revealed a cytoplasmic localization in the glandular epithelium of the prostate and showed a significant upregulation of mRNA and protein in prostate tumor samples. Our findings support the hypothesis that PKP1 may have a tumor-suppressive function and suggest an important role of SPOCK1 in prostate tumor progression. Collectively, altered expression of PKP1 and SPOCK1 appears to be a frequent and critical event in prostate cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26138584
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  • 9
    Abstract: p120 catenin (p120ctn) is required for the stability of classic cadherins at the cell surface and is thought to play a central role in modulating cell-cell adhesion. Cytoplasmic p120ctn promotes cell motility, and probably other activities, by modulating the activities of RhoA, Rac and Cdc42. E-cadherin is expressed in periportal but not in perivenous hepatocytes. In contrast, all hepatocytes of normal mouse liver express N-cadherin. Cholangiocytes express exclusively E-cadherin. Mice with p120ctn ablation in hepatocytes and cholangiocytes (p120LiKO mice) were generated by Cre-loxP technology. Livers were examined by histological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural and serum analysis to determine the effect of the p120ctn ablation on liver structure and function. Mouse hepatocyte differentiation and homeostasis were not impaired. However, hepatoblasts differentiated abnormally into hybrid hepato-biliary cells, ductal plate structures were irregular in p120LiKO newborns, and further development of intrahepatic bile ducts was severely impaired. In adults, enrichment of ductular structures was accompanied by portal inflammation and fibrosis. p120LiKO mice did not spontaneously develop hepatocellular carcinoma but initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis by diethylnitrosamine was accelerated. In summary: p120ctn has a critical role in biliary differentiation and is a potent suppressor of liver tumor growth.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27769530
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