Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-12-04
    Description: Background: Circulating insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) has been associated with prostate cancer. Preclinical studies found that vitamin D regulates IGFBP-3 expression, although evidence from epidemiologic studies is conflicting. Methods: Mendelian randomization analyses (MR) were conducted to reassess associations between IGFBP-3 and prostate cancer risk and advanced prostate cancer using summary statistics from the PRACTICAL consortium (44,825 cases; 27,904 controls). Observational and MR analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between inactive vitamin D [25(OH)D] and IGFBP-3 using data from the ProtecT study (1,366 cases;1,071 controls) and summary statistics from the CHARGE consortium ( n = 18,995). Results: The OR for prostate cancer per SD unit increase in circulating IGFBP-3 was 1.14 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02–1.28]. The OR for advanced prostate cancer per SD unit increase in IGFBP-3 was 1.22 (95% CI, 1.07–1.40). Observationally, a SD increase in 25(OH)D was associated with a 0.1SD (95% CI, 0.05–0.14) increase in IGFBP-3. MR analyses found little evidence for a causal relationship between circulating 25(OH)D and IGFBP-3 in the circulation. Conclusions: This study provided confirmatory evidence that IGFBP-3 is a risk factor for prostate cancer risk and progression. Observationally, there was evidence that 25(OH)D is associated with IGFBP-3, but MR analyses suggested that these findings were unlikely to be causal. Findings may be limited by the nature of instrumentation of 25(OH)D and IGFBP-3 and the utility of circulating measures. 25(OH)D appears unlikely to be causally related to IGFBP-3 in the circulation, however, our findings do not preclude causal associations at the tissue level. Impact: IGFBP-3 is a prostate cancer risk factor but 25(OH)D are unlikely to be causally related to IGFBP-3 in the circulation.
    Print ISSN: 1055-9965
    Electronic ISSN: 1538-7755
    Topics: Medicine
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-12-04
    Description: Background: Endogenous hormones are associated with breast cancer risk, but little is known about their role on breast tissue composition, a strong risk predictor. This study aims to investigate the relationship between growth and sex hormone levels and breast tissue composition in young nulliparous women. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 415 young (age ~21.5 years) nulliparous women from an English prebirth cohort underwent a MRI examination of their breasts to estimate percent-water (a proxy for mammographic percent density) and provided a blood sample to measure plasma levels of growth factors (insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin-like growth factor-II, insulin growth factor-binding protein-3, growth hormone) and, if not on hormonal contraception ( n = 117) sex hormones (dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, testosterone, estrone, estadiol, sex hormone–binding globulin, prolactin). Testosterone ( n = 330) and sex hormone–binding globulin ( n = 318) were also measured at age 15.5 years. Regression models were used to estimate the relative difference (RD) in percent-water associated with one SD increment in hormone levels. Results: Estradiol at age 21.5 and sex hormone–binding globulin at age 21.5 were positively associated with body mass index (BMI)-adjusted percent-water [RD (95% confidence interval (CI)): 3% (0%–7%) and 3% (1%–5%), respectively]. There was a positive nonlinear association between androstenedione at age 21.5 and percent-water. Insulin-like growth factor-I and growth hormone at age 21.5 were also positively associated with BMI-adjusted percent-water [RD (95% CI): 2% (0%–4%) and 4% (1%–7%), respectively]. Conclusions: The findings suggest that endogenous hormones affect breast tissue composition in young nulliparous women. Impact: The well-established associations of childhood growth and development with breast cancer risk may be partly mediated by the role of endogenous hormones on breast tissue composition.
    Print ISSN: 1055-9965
    Electronic ISSN: 1538-7755
    Topics: Medicine
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Keywords: DISEASE ; RISK-FACTORS ; OBESITY ; METAANALYSIS ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; GROWTH-FACTORS ; GENETIC-VARIANTS ; LEG LENGTH ; INSTRUMENTAL VARIABLES ; CONTROL-STUDY PROTECT
    Abstract: Background Epidemiological studies suggest a potential role for obesity and determinants of adult stature in prostate cancer risk and mortality, but the relationships described in the literature are complex. To address uncertainty over the causal nature of previous observational findings, we investigated associations of height- and adiposity-related genetic variants with prostate cancer risk and mortality. Methods We conducted a case-control study based on 20,848 prostate cancers and 20,214 controls of European ancestry from 22 studies in the PRACTICAL consortium. We constructed genetic risk scores that summed each man's number of height and BMI increasing alleles across multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms robustly associated with each phenotype from published genome-wide association studies. Results The genetic risk scores explained 6.31 and 1.46 % of the variability in height and BMI, respectively. There was only weak evidence that genetic variants previously associated with increased BMI were associated with a lower prostate cancer risk (odds ratio per standard deviation increase in BMI genetic score 0.98; 95 % CI 0.96, 1.00; p = 0.07). Genetic variants associated with increased height were not associated with prostate cancer incidence (OR 0.99; 95 % CI 0.97, 1.01; p = 0.23), but were associated with an increase (OR 1.13; 95 % CI 1.08, 1.20) in prostate cancer mortality among low-grade disease (p heterogeneity, low vs. high grade 〈 0.001). Genetic variants associated with increased BMI were associated with an increase (OR 1.08; 95 % CI 1.03, 1.14) in all-cause mortality among men with low-grade disease (p heterogeneity = 0.03). Conclusions We found little evidence of a substantial effect of genetically elevated height or BMI on prostate cancer risk, suggesting that previously reported observational associations may reflect common environmental determinants of height or BMI and prostate cancer risk. Genetically elevated height and BMI were associated with increased mortality (prostate cancer-specific and all-cause, respectively) in men with low-grade disease, a potentially informative but novel finding that requires replication.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26387087
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: An increasing body of evidence shows that miR-34 family has tumor suppressive properties mediating apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and senescence. In ovarian cancer, miR34 family members were found to be under expressed. Particularly miR-34a has been revealed to be a direct transcriptional target of p53 which is frequently mutated in epithelial ovarian carcinomas especially in high grade serous cancer. Moreover, methylation of miR-34a CpG Islands was found to down-regulate miR-34a expression. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical relevance of mir34a as well as its promoter methylation in a subset of 133 ovarian cancers with a special focus on the p53 mutation status, the dualistic type I and type II ovarian cancer model and the different histotypes. METHODS: One hundred thirty-three epithelial ovarian cancers and 8 samples of healthy ovarian surface epithelium were retrospectively analysed for miR-34a expression with quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Gene-specific DNA methylation was evaluated with MethyLight technique. RESULTS: Significantly lower miR-34a expression was found in ovarian cancers than in healthy ovarian epithelium (p = 0.002). The expression of miR-34a was found lower in type II than in type I cancers (p = 0.037), in p53 mutated as compared to p53 wild type cancers (p = 0.003) and in high grade compared to in low grade cancers (p = 0.028). In multivariate COX regression model low expressing miR-34a cancers exhibited a reduced PFS (p = 0.039) and OS (p = 0.018). In serous cancers low miR-34a levels showed a worse OS confirmed also in multivariate analysis (p = 0.022). miR-34a promoter methylation was found higher in type II cancers than in type I (p = 0.006). mir34a expression and promoter methylation showed an inverse correlation in cancer samples (p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: We demonstrated a clinical independent role of miR-34a in epithelial ovarian cancers. Moreover, we corroborated the correlation between miR-34a expression and its promoter methylation in a large set of ovarian cancers. The inverse association between miR-34a expression and grading, p53 mutation status and dualistic tumor type classification, together with its prognostic relevance may underline the tumor-suppressive character of miR-34a in ovarian cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26879132
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: captopril ; propranolol ; sympathetic nervous system ; noradrenaline ; aldosterone ; renin ; angiotensin converting enzyme ; hypertension ; isometric exercise
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effects of captopril and propranolol on blood pressure, heart rate and plasma noradrenaline, renin and aldosterone, and on the responses to changes in posture and to isometric exercise were measured in patients with essential hypertension. During placebo administration blood pressure, heart rate and plasma noradrenaline rose on standing and during isometric exercise. The rise in diastolic blood pressure during isometric exercise correlated significantly with the rise in plasma noradrenaline. During captopril treatment blood pressure was significantly lower than during placebo administration when the patients were lying, standing or sitting, but the reduction during isometric exercise was not significant. Plasma renin increased, but heart rate, plasma noradrenaline and plasma aldosterone remained unchanged. The acute changes in blood pressure, heart rate and plasma noradrenaline produced by standing and isometric exercise during captopril treatment were similar to those during placebo administration. During propranolol treatment diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower than during placebo administration when the patients were lying, standing or sitting and during isometric exercise. Heart rate also fell. Plasma noradrenaline during standing, sitting and isometric exercise was significantly greater than during placebo administration. The changes in plasma noradrenaline measured during propranolol treatment with the patients supine were negatively correlated with noradrenaline values obtained during placebo administration: plasma noradrenaline fell in patients with higher, and increased in those with lower, initial concentrations. The expected acute increase in heart rate on standing and during isometric exercise was blunted by propranolol, but the changes in blood pressure and plasma noradrenaline were unaffected. We conclude that in essential hypertension noradrenaline is involved in the pressor response to isometric exercise. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition by captopril did not interfere with the responses of the sympathetic nervous system to postural changes and isometric exercise. During propranolol treatment there was no evidence that reduced sympathetic activity was involved in the hypotensive response.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins ; Insulin-like growth factors ; Growth
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II) circulate bound to specific proteins. Two classes of binding proteins have been relatively well characterized differing in size, immunological activity, and physiological function. This review summarizes the more recent data on IGF-binding proteins, focusing on their possible clinical implications.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus ; insulin requirements ; insulin-like growth factor I ; growth hormone ; adolescence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in adolescence is associated with reduced levels of insulin-like growth factor I, elevated growth hormone concentrations and insulin resistance. In order to determine whether restoring insulin-like growth factor I levels to normal might lead to a reduction in growth hormone levels and insulin requirements, we undertook a double-blind placebo controlled study of a single s. c. dose of recombinant insulin-like growth factor I (40 μg/kg body weight) in nine late pubertal subjects with Type 1 diabetes. After administration of placebo or insulin-like growth factor I at 18.00 hours, a variable rate insulin infusion was used to maintain euglycaemia overnight. Plasma insulin-like growth factor I, growth hormone, free insulin, and intermediate metabolite concentrations were monitored throughout the study. Recombinant insulin-like growth factor I led to a rise in plasma concentrations which reached a peak at 5.5 h (413.1±28.2 ng/ml, mean±SEM). Mean growth hormone levels between 20.00 and 08.00 hours were significantly reduced after recombinant insulin-like growth factor I (19.4±4.0 compared with 33.6±5.8 mU/l; p=0.01), as were the insulin requirements for euglycaemia (0.25±0.02 compared with 0.31±0.04 mU · kg−1 · min−1; p=0.03). Plasma free insulin levels were lower after recombinant insulin-like growth factor I administration (31.9±2.7 compared with 67.9±16.0 mU/l; p=0.001) but no significant differences in ketone or lactate levels were detected. Recombinant insulin-like growth factor I in a s. c. dose of 40 μg/kg body weight leads to a significant reduction in overnight growth hormone levels and insulin requirements in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The mechanism by which chronic stress affects the course of inflammatory diseases is still not well understood. We have evaluated the effect of two types of nonhabituating stress on a major component of the inflammatory response, synovial plasma extravasation, induced by perfusion of the potent inflammatory mediator, bradykinin and evaluated the underlying neuroendocrine mechanism in the rat. Chronic intermittent noise or ether stress induced profound inhibition of bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation, which is associated with increased adjuvant-arthritis severity. This inhibition, however, took 24 h to fully develop after the last exposure to stress and persisted for at least 48 h. The inhibition could be reversed by an additional exposure to the stressor, just prior to measuring the inflammatory response, suggesting that the delay is due to stress-induced release of a factor that acutely masks the inhibition of the inflammatory response. This novel, unexpected feature of the effect of nonhabituating stress on inflammation may help explain variability in effects of stress in patients with inflammatory disease. The effect of nonhabituating stress on inflammation was dependent on the sympathoadrenal axis with no detectable contribution by the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: IGF ; IGFBP ; diabetes ; glucose ; proteases
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) circulate bound to specific proteins (termed IGFBP-1 through IGFBP-6) that modulate IGF bioactivity in tissues. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of glucose on IGF binding to IGFBPs in rat and human serum by means of western ligand blotting. Serum samples were incubated with increasing concentrations of glucose (0 to 50 mmol/l), and EDTA (25 mmol/l) was added to inhibit protease activity. To analyse the effect of glucose on protection of IGFBPs from protease activity, serum from pregnant women (reported to be very rich in proteolytic activity against IGFBPs) was added to rat serum previously incubated with glucose. Glucose did not affect the125I-IGF binding to rat and human serum IGFBPs. The intensity of IGFBP-3 bands decreased considerably during the incubation. This appeared to be due to endogenous protease activity, since the decrease was blocked by addition of EDTA. The incubationi of rat serum with pregnant human serum produced a marked attenuation of IGFBP-3 and disappearance of IGFBP-4 bands. In conclusion, our study shows that glucose does not influence the IGF binding to IGFBP-3 either in rat or in human serum, confirms the presence of endogenous proteolytic activity in normal non-pregnant serum, and demonstrates that glucose has no protective action against protease activity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    ISSN: 1600-0625
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract:  In this study, we have examined the effects of retinoic acid (RA) on the human immortalized keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). A significant twofold (P 〈 0.01) increase in apoptotic cell death compared with the control was found within 24 h of treatment with 10−5 M of RA. Apoptosis was confirmed by flow cytometry. Cycloheximide did not inhibit this acute RA-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II, 50 ng/ml) was able to significantly (67.3%; P 〈 0.05) reduce RA effects, whereas IGF-I (50 ng/ml) and insulin (75 ng/ml) were without effect. Furthermore, analogues of IGF-II [leu27 IGF-II and Des(1-6) IGF-II], with altered affinities for the IGF-I receptor and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), but retained affinities for the IGF-II receptor, also completely inhibited (100%; P 〈 0.01) RA-induced apoptosis, while an IGF-I receptor antagonist did not reduce the survival effects of IGF-II. Insulin pretreatment negates the survival effect of IGF-II. In contrast, mannose 6 phosphate (M6P) did not alter RA or IGF-II actions. These results indicate that rapid induction of cell death by RA is independent of production or secretion of new proteins. The inhibition of RA action by IGF-II was independent of its ability to signal through the IGF-I receptor or to interact with IGFBPs.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. More information can be found here...