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  • 1
    ISSN: 0300-9629
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Neuropeptide Y ; cerebrospinal fluid ; central nervous system diseases
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Neuropeptide Y (NPY) was measured in central and peripheral cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients suffering from various intracranial disorders. The central NPY-like immunoreactivity (LI) level showed a concentration of 129±19 pmol·l−1 and was significantly increased (p〈0.05) compared to peripheral CSF (73±9 pmol·l−1). From five patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage the CSF NPY-LI levels reached 154±47 pmol·l−1. In five patients peripheral and central CSF was collected at the same occasion and the CSF NPY-LI concentration was 76±17 pmol·l−1 in peripheral and 142±23 pmol·l−1 in central CSF (p〈0.01), respectively. In a reference group of 9 patients, who were examined by lumbar myelography because of suspected intervertebral herniated discs, the peripheral CSF NPY-LI concentration was 59±5 pmol·l−1 a value which was also significantly lower compared to NPY-LI levels in central CSF. Thus it is obvious that NPY is present in human CSF with a relatively higher concentration in central than in peripheral CSF at least in patients with disorders of the central nervous system, suggesting a central origin of the NPY.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Amino acids ; subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) ; cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Twenty amino acids were determined chromatographically in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 26 patients and in plasma from 13 of the patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). In the first group of 13 patients, from which lumbar CSF and plasma were collected on days three, six and nine after SAH, there was a significantly increased CSF concentration from day three to six and/or nine in all amino acids except for taurine which was within the normal range. In the second group of 13 patients, from which CSF was collected during peroperative clipping of aneurysms, there was an increased concentration in lumbar and central CSF in all amino acids except for taurine compared to controls. There was no correlation between any of the amino acids and cerebral vascular diameter as assessed by angiography. It is suggested that the increased levels in lumbar and central CSF amino acids result from proteolysis due to catabolic processes and from impaired clearance of the amino acids from CSF after SAH.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) ; intracranial aneurysm ; vasospasm ; cerebral metabolism ; cerebral circulation time
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A retrospective study of cerebral angiographies from 173 patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) were investigated and divided into three groups. The diameters of the middle cerebral artery and the internal carotid artery were measured and correlated with time elapsing between the onset of SAH and the angiographic study. A significant (p〈0.001) reduction in vascular diameter was found at all levels of intraas well as extradural parts of the internal carotid artery in patients with aneurysms (group I). Also, bilateral angiographic investigation from 70 patients showed a significant (p〈0.001) reduction at all levels on both sides, regardless of whether aneurysms were present (group II) or not (group III). Moreover, the reduction in vascular diameter was more pronounced in patients with than in patients without aneurysms. The most pronounced reduction in vascular diameter was found in one of the extradural parts of the internal carotid artery in both group II and III. However, reduction in vascular diamter did not correlate significantly with the cerebral circulation time despite a tendency towards it. On the other hand, layering of the contrast medium along the posterior wall of the internal carotid artery was more often found in patients with prolongation in cerebral circulation time suggesting a reduced cerebral blood flow in these patients. It is suggested that the significant reduction in vascular diameter of intra-as well as extradural parts of the internal carotid artery, might reflect an adaptation to altered cerebral metabolism after SAH.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Subarachnoid haemorrhage ; SAH ; computed tomography ; hydrocephalus ; homovanillic acid (HVA) ; 5-hydroxyindole-acetic acid (5-HIAA) ; 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneacetic acid (MOPEG) ; hypoxanthine ; aspartate ; somatomedines ; cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Thirtynine (39) patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) were studied with computed tomography (CT). The amount of blood in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the degree of hydrocephalus were evaluated. These two parameters were correlated with the clinical condition on admission and at discharge and against CSF concentration of a series of CSF substances. These included the major monoamine metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (MOPEG) and in addition the concentrations of hypoxanthine, aspartate and somatomedins. The amount of blood and the degree of hydrocephalus on admission did not seem to influence the concentration of these substances over time. It was found that patients with large amounts of blood in the CSF had a worse clinical outcome (p〈0.05) compared to patients with no or moderate amount of blood. In addition, patients with enlargement of the temporal horns showed a worse clinical condition on admission (p〈0.01) than did patients without such enlargement. Despite a significant (p〈0.01) vasoconstriction there was no correlation between vascular calibre and concentration of the substances in the CSF. It is speculated whether or not the increased levels of these substances were the result of cell lysis per se, a disturbance of the CSF circulation or to the toxic effect of blood resulting in deranged metabolism in both the CSF and brain tissue after SAH.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) ; subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) ; cerebral arterial vasospasm
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Fifty (50) selected patients with arteriovenous malformation (AVM) with and without subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) were investigated, in respect of occurrence and course of the vasospasm. The diameters of the carotid siphon and its main branches were measured and plotted against the time elapsing between the haemorrhage and the angiographic study. Patients without SAH were used as a reference group. The results suggest intracranial arterial spasm to occur between the third and eleventh day after the onset of SAH. Patients with intracerebral haematoma may show vasospasm from the first day onwards. It seems that the radiologically demonstrated spasm in AVM had no impact on the clinical outcome in this series.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta neurochirurgica 64 (1982), S. 233-234 
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Monoamine metabolites ; subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) ; cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The concentrations of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA), the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and the norepinephrine metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MOPEG) were determined in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) using a mass fragmentographic method. In a first group of 24 patients lumbar CSF was collected during the first 10 days after SAH. The concentrations of HVA and 5-HIAA showed a several-fold increase in the majority of subjects while that for MOPEG was less pronounced in comparison to controls. In a second group of 12 SAH-patients, CSF was collected in 10 ml fractions during surgical clipping of aneurysms. The mean concentrations of HVA, 5-HIAA and MOPEG in lumbar CSF was 469,275 and 39 pmol/l, respectively, whereas central CSF concentrations were 1,212, 499 and 48 pmol/ml, respectively. Compared to healthy controls, both HVA and 5-HIAA showed increased levels (pl 0,01) but MOPEG was within the normal range. No correlation between the concentrations of the monoamine metabolites, the neurological condition or the cerebral vascular diameter was observed in neither of the two groups. It is suggested that the accumulation of HVA and 5-HIAA in SAH patients is explained by a disturbance of the active transport mechanism.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Prostaglandins (PG) ; subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effects of Leucotrienes C4 (LTC4), D4 (LTD4), Prostacyclin (PGI2) and Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) were studied on superfused human cerebral artery strips. LTC4 and LTD4 neither contracted nor relaxed the strips. PGI2 caused a dose-dependent relaxation from 0.2 nmol to 0.8 nmol. When given simultaneously with a vasoconstrictor substance, PGI2 had an almost complete inhibitory effect. TXA2 caused a dose-dependent contraction from 0.03 nmol to 0.15 nmol. Also, TXA2 was more potent than 5-Hydroxytryptamin (5-HT) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) with a contraction threshold of about 0.1 nmol. Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), H2 (PGH2), and F2a (PGF2a) had contraction thresholds of about 1 nmol. Only a stable endoperoxide analogue (EPA), was more potent than TXA2, with a contraction threshold of 0.005 nmol. The possible role of these substances in producing ischaemic manifestations after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is discussed.
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