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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Diabetes ; insulin ; sulphonylureas ; biguanides ; drug utilization ; geographical differences
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The consumption of insulin and oral antidiabetic drugs was measured at the gross sales level in Sweden and Norway and at the prescription level in Northern Ireland. “Agreed daily doses” were used as units of comparison, which defined as follows: insulin 40 I.U., tolbutamide 1 g, acetohexamide 500 mg etc. Consumption was expressed as the number of “agreed daily doses” per 1,000 inhabitants per day. This provided a rough estimate of the number of subjects for whom the drug had been prescribed per 1,000 population. The data were collected during the three months April – June 1971. Marked differences in the consumption of antidiabetic drugs were found between the three countries and also between areas within each country. The consumption of insulin was similar in Norway and Northern Ireland (3.5 and 3.9 agreed daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants per day), but almost twice as high in Sweden. In Norway much lower use was found in certain rural areas. The variation in the consumption of oral antidiabetic drugs was even more marked. Surprisingly, consumption was considerably higher in Sweden (15.8) than in the nearby Norway (7.3), and was even lower in Northern Ireland (4.3). The major use was of sulphonylureas, especially chlorpropamide. Within the countries there was marked regional variation in the choice of individual biguanides and sulphonylureas. The data are discussed in relation to such factors as the incidence of diabetes, the sole use of dietary treatment etc. It is concluded that studies in depth, which link the actual use of drugs by patients to diagnosis, diabetic symptoms and clinical outcome of treatment are necessary in order to explore the reasons behind the marked geographical differences and to define a rational drug policy. However, the methods described in the study may be used for early detection of gross national differences in drug utilization, the further investigation of which may reveal to be of great public health interest.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Key words Ritanserin ; MDL-11 ; 939 ; Mianserin ; Ketanserin ; BOL ; LY-53 ; 857 ; 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonists ; Nictitating membrane ; Motor performance ; Rabbit
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  This study examined the role of the serotonin 5-HT2 receptor in motor function by examining the effect of antagonists on the motor performance of a cranial nerve reflex, the nictitating membrane (NM) reflex of the rabbit. The NM reflex was elicited by varying intensities of a tactile stimulus and the magnitudes of the elicited responses were measured at each intensity. Dose-response curves were obtained for the effects of several 5-HT2 receptor antagonists on response magnitude. d-Bromolysergic acid diethylamide (BOL), LY-53,857 and ketanserin had no significant effect on the magnitude of the NM reflex, indicating that they are neutral antagonists. However, the 5-HT2 receptor antagonists ritanserin, MDL-11,939 and mianserin produced a significant reduction in response magnitude with no significant effects on response frequency, suggesting that they were acting as inverse agonists at the 5-HT2 receptor. The reduction in reflex magnitude produced by mianserin (10 µmol/kg) was fully blocked by BOL (5.8 µmol/kg), supporting the conclusion that mianserin was producing a reduction in reflex magnitude through an effect at the 5-HT2 receptor. The occurrence of inverse agonism suggests the possible existence of constitutive activity in vivo. We conclude that the 5-HT2 receptor (either 2A or 2C) plays an important role in motor function, perhaps by providing a tonic influence on motor systems.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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