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  • 1
    ISSN: 0277-5387
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Virchows Archiv 409 (1986), S. 275-286 
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Invasive ductal breast cancer ; “Cellular stromal reaction” ; Mononuclear infiltrates ; Lymphoreticular infiltrates ; Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes ; Tumour-infiltrating macrophages
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Fifty-two invasive ductal breast cancers were investigated histologically and immunohistologically to assess localization and composition of the lymphoreticular infiltrates. The tumour-infiltrating cells were mainly located in the intervening stroma, whereas tumour foci often exhibited lower numbers of lymphoreticular cells. Macrophages (Mono 1+ and KiM 6+) and helper/inducer cells bearing the T4 surface antigen (Leu-3a+) regularly constituted the majority of the tumour-infiltrating lymphoreticular cells. In more than 80% of cases large numbers of macrophages were found, and many T4 cells occured in about 60%. Next in frequency were the T lymphocytes (Leu-1+) which were mostly observed in high (46%), or in moderate (39%) numbers. In about 2/3 of the cases moderate numbers of T8 (suppressor/cytotoxic) lymphocytes (Leu-2a+) were detected. B lymphocytes (T0 15+) and natural killer cells (Leu-7+) were generally encountered in very low numbers, while eosinophilic granulocytes were virtually absent from the lymphoreticular infiltrates. Tissue mast cells and plasma cells were present in very low numbers in about one half of the tumours but cases with low, moderate or - rarely - even high numbers of infiltrating cells also occured. It must be emphasized that an in situ histomorphological analysis of the cellular part of the stromal reaction of invasive ductal breast cancers allows only limited conclusions concerning the functional properties of the tumour-infiltrating lymphoreticular cells. From the present study, macrophages and T4 cells but also T8 lymphocytes might be of significance in immunooncological reactions “against” clinically detectable stages of invasive breast cancer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0584
    Keywords: Hodgkin's disease ; High-dose therapy ; Bone marrow transplantation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Fifty-one consecutive patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) have been treated with high-dose chemotherapy (HDT) and transplantation of autologous bone marrow (BM) (n=44), autologous BM plus peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) (n=2), PBSC (n=1), syngeneic (n=1), or allogeneic BM (n=3). All patients had received standard salvage chemotherapy prior to HDT and were classified as sensitive (n=33) or resistant (n=17) to this treatment; one patient was in untreated relapse prior to BMT. The preparative regimens for patients receiving autologous BM and/or PBSC consisted of cyclophosphamide, VP 16, and BCNU (CVB) (n=44) or BCNU, etoposide, ara-C, and melphalan (BEAM) (n=3). The patients receiving allogeneic transplants were treated with the CVB regimen (n=2) or busulfan (16 mg/kg body wt.) and cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg body wt.). With a median follow-up of 12 months, overall survival for 44 patients grafted with autologous BM is 61%±9%, progression-free survival for patients with sensitive disease is 44%±11%; no patient with resistant relapse survived beyond 1 year post transplant. Two of three patients grafted with allogeneic BM still survive 15 and 24 months after BMT with Karnofsky performance scores of 70% and 100%, respectively. The main toxicity encountered with the CVB regimen was interstitial pneumonia (IP), seen in four of 15 patients (27%) receiving ≥600 mg/m2 of BCNU. Three of these patients have died. The results show that HDT followed by hematopoietic stem cell rescue may effectively salvage an important fraction of patients with relapsed HD who respond to standard chemotherapy. The same approach is largely unsuccessful in patients with proven refractoriness to standard chemotherapy. Whether HDT followed by BMT or PBSC support is superior to intensive chemotherapy without stem cell support can be answered only by a prospectively randomized trial.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0584
    Keywords: Bone marrow transplantation ; Lymph node ; Immune system ; Chronic myeloid leukaemia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A histological and immunohistological analysis of lymph nodes after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) was performed to investigate the microarchitecture of the lymphatic tissue and the phenotype of the recovering lymphoid cells. The study included four patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia who had died between 0.5 and 12 months after transplantation. The study yielded the following results: 1. All lymph nodes, irrespective of length of the survival period, exhibited severe atrophy of the lymphoreticular tissue with marked depletion of lymphocytes and dilatation of the sinuses. The number of lymphoid cells increased considerably with time after transplantation. 2. The main constituents of the recovering immune system were mature T lymphocytes (CD 4+ and CD 8+ cells in nearly equal numbers) and macrophages. The earliest signs of recovery of the immune system could already be detected 0.5 month after BMT. 3. Extreme paucity of B lymphocytes was a prominent finding in all lymph nodes studied. True lymphatic follicles and germinal centres were never detected. 4. Polytypic plasma cells were seen in low or moderate numbers mainly in the lymph node sinuses, while neither marked plasmacytic hyperplasia nor even a monotypic pattern were found. 5. Immune-accessory reticulum cells were detected only in the lymph nodes of the patient who survived 12 months. 6. Natural killer cells occurred only in low numbers irrespective of the duration of survival after BMT. Altogether, the histopathological lymph node findings clearly reflect the marked long-standing depression of the immune responses seen after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Since three of the four patients had shown signs of acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease, the histological findings presumably do not fully reflect the normal reconstitution of the immune system, but may have been modified by phenomena related to graft-versus-host disease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra is associated with one of the most prominent human neurological disorders, Parkinson's disease. It is therefore of high interest to identify molecules with trophic effects on this neuronal population. We show here that the neuregulin receptor ErbB4 is differentially expressed in mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons, found in the substantia nigra and in a subregion of the ventral tegmentum but not in the retrorubral field. Early developmental onset and continued expression of ErbB4 into the adult and the presence of two high affinity ligands, neuregulin-1 and betacellulin, in the basal ganglia, suggested that these molecules might participate in the differentiation and/or maintenance of the nigrostriatal system. In order to address this hypothesis, we used a loxP flanked ErbB4 allele in combination with a nestin-Cre transgene and generated brain-specific ErbB4 null mice. These mutant animals survived into adulthood. The distribution of dopaminergic cell bodies in the midbrain, the expression of numerous genes specific to mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons, and the axonal projection to the basal ganglia all appeared normal. Finally, an assessment of their motor function revealed no behavioral deficits. The apparent lack of any mutant phenotype suggests the presence of a strong compensatory mechanism.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of dermatological research 213 (1961), S. 928-928 
    ISSN: 1432-069X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Journal of Chromatography A 69 (1972), S. 395-398 
    ISSN: 0021-9673
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0016-6480
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract AtT=0 a perfect Mössbauer line has natural line widthΓ=ħ/τ n . However, with rising temperature the width increases. The reason of the line broadening is the second order Doppler effect which causes a stochastic frequency modulation of theγ-radiation, reflecting the thermal motion of the Mössbauer atom. Following Josephson in treating the second order Doppler shift as a mass changeΔM=E n/c2 of theγ-emitting atom caused by the loss of nuclear excitation energy E n , and using the well known relaxation formalism for calculating theγ-frequency spectrum, the line broadeningΔ Γ is evaluated within the framework of harmonic lattice theory. For a parabolic lattice frequency spectrum with Debye-temperature Θ one obtains $$\Delta {\Gamma \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {\Gamma \Gamma }} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} \Gamma } = \left( {{{\tau _n } \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{\tau _n } {\tau _c }}} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} {\tau _c }}} \right) \cdot \left( {{{E_n } \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{E_n } {Mc^2 }}} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} {Mc^2 }}} \right) \cdot F\left( {{T \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {T \Theta }} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} \Theta }} \right),where\tau _c = {{\rlap{--} h} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{\rlap{--} h} k}} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} k}\Theta $$ is the correlation time of the lattice vibrations. The functionF(T/Θ) may be expanded in powers ofT/Θ, yielding $$F\left( {{T \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {T \Theta }} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} \Theta }} \right) = 9720\pi \left( {{T \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {T \Theta }} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} \Theta }} \right)^7 forT〈〈 \Theta $$ and $$F\left( {{T \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {T \Theta }} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} \Theta }} \right) = 2.7\pi \left( {{T \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {T \Theta }} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} \Theta }} \right)^2 forT 〉 〉 \Theta $$ , respectively. Although unavoidable, the line broadening is obviously too small to be observable by means of the present experimental technique.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Wir haben kürzlich gezeigt, daß die 7l -keV-γ-Strahlung des Ni61 für den Mößbauer-Effekt geeignet ist. Das Mößbauer-SpektrumM (v) ist in Nickelmetall etwa fünfmal breiter als die natürliche Linienbreite. Diese Verbreiterung wird durch magnetische Hyperfeinstruktur-Aufspaltung verursacht. Durch Anwendung äußerer Magnetfelder werden die sonst unorientierten, für die Aufspaltung verantwortlichen inneren Felder polarisiert. Verschiedene Polarisationen ergeben verschiedene Formen des SpektrumsM (v). Im Anhang wirdM (v) für E1 M1,(E2) undM2-γ-Strahlung als Funktion der eingehenden Kernspins, der magnetischen Momente und der magnetischen Felder in Quelle und Absorber angegeben. Für Ni61 erhält man daraus je nach der verwendeten Feldgeometrie z.B. 7, 14, 21 oder 35 verschiedene Linien, die so eng benachbart sind, daß sie sich nicht auflösen lassen. Trotzdem liefert die gemessene Form vonM (v) Informationen über das innere MagnetfeldH in Nickelmetall und über die eingehenden Kernmomente μe (angeregter Zustand) and μg (Grundzustand). Wir finden in dieser Weise das Verhältnis μe/μg=− 0.474±0·08, das Produkt(μ g · H)=(26·0 ± 2·6) (Mc/sec)(h · j g) und die Richtung vomH, nämlich entgegengesetzt zur makroskopischen Magnetisierung. Der Wert für (μ g ·H) ist in befriedigender Übereinstimmung mit magnetischen Kernresonanzmessungen.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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