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  • 1
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  31. Jahrestagung der Deutschsprachigen Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Verbrennungsbehandlung (DAV 2013); 20130116-20130119; Mayrhofen, Österreich; DOC13dav56 /20130219/
    Publication Date: 2013-02-20
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0924-2031
    Keywords: Clay minerals ; Infrared spectrometry ; Intercalation ; Kaolinites ; Thermometric methods
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The enzyme aspartate aminotransferase was demonstrated cytochemically in the rat hippocampus 4, 7, and 14 days after unilateral entorhinal cortex lesion. At the light microscopic level the enzyme showed a significant activity decrease in the ipsilateral entorhinal terminal field which was similar at all postlesion times investigated. Non-denervated areas, i.e. the inner one-third of the dentate gyrus molecular layer and the radiatum layer of CA2/3, showed an increase of aminotransferase activities. At the electron microscopic level in the entorhinal terminal field of the control (unoperated) side aspartate aminotransferase was localized preferentially in a great number of boutons, containing the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial isoenzymes. Following entorhinal lesion a significant loss of these positively reacting boutons was seen. Most of the degenerating boutons contained reaction product but a small number was negative for aspartate aminotransferase. From 4 to 14 postlesion days the positively reacting boutons of the non-denervated supragranular zone expanded outward into the denervated area according to the known terminal proliferation of the commissural and associational systems. The remaining denervated entorhinal terminal field was reinnervated predominantly by negatively reacting boutons (probably terminal proliferations of septal afferents) and by a small number of positively reacting boutons (probably terminal proliferations of the crossed temporodentate pathway). The presence of cytoplasmic aspartate aminotransferase in the terminals of a well-known glutamatergic system is discussed in relation to the possible importance of this enzyme for the production of releasable glutamate.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) was measured in 63 different cortical areas and nuclei of the telencephalon, diencephalon and rhombencephalon of young adult (3 to 4-month-old) rats and of 27-month-old Wistar rats, in which learning impairments had been proven by a water maze test. The LCGU was determined by [14C]2-deoxyglucose autoradiography. In the old rats the mean LCGU of all brain regions was significantly reduced by about 10% compared with the young control group; the mean LCGU was 74.2 μmol glucose/(100 g × min) in the young and 66.7 in the old rats. Different degrees of LCGU decrease were found in the different regions. Most of the brain regions with significantly reduced LCGU values in the aged, learning impaired rats were associated with auditory and visual functions, the dopaminergic system, and structures known to be involved in learning and memory processes. Therefore, the regional pattern of LCGU reduction found in the aged, learning impaired rats did not resemble any known pattern found after lesions of a single transmitter system or systemic administration of transmitter agonists or antagonists.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The ultrastructural study of a medullary cancer of the thyroid gland revealed some unusual features. The stroma of the tumor did not contain amyloid. An abundant amount of intracytoplasmic microfilaments was observed in the tumor cells, sometimes displacing the various organelles. The most prominent feature was the presence of very dense, pleomorphic (“biconcave”) secretory granules, measuring an average of 250 mµ in their longest diameter. Mainly because of the type of secretory granules, this tumor showed a peculiar resemblance to ileal carcinoids. The possible significance of this finding is discussed.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Pituitary Gland ; Prolactin ; Pituitary Adenoma ; Electron Microscopy ; Histology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Morphologic studies of pituitary neoplasms removed by surgery from 36 human patients revealed 8 chromophobe adenomas which differed clearly from the remaining tumors. The cytoplasm of the adenoma cells failed to stain with PAS, aniline blue, aldehyde fuchsin, aldehyde thionin, orange G or light green, but positively stained granules were found by using erythrosine or carmoisine. Immunoperoxidase technique disclosed the presence of prolactin in the cytoplasm of some adenoma cells. The adenoma cells exhibited distinct ultrastructural features such as well developed rough surfaced endoplasmic reticulum with Nebenkern formation, prominence of Golgi apparatus, presence of misplaced exocytosis as well as pleomorphism of secretory granules with a considerable variation of size ranging from 130 to 500 nm in diameter. Thus, by electron microscopy the adenoma cells showed a close resemblance to prolactin cells of the non-tumorous pituitary glands except for the reduced size and number of secretory granules. These chromophobe adenomas are regarded as representing a distinct pathological entity clearly distinguishable from other forms of pituitary neoplasms. In view of the morphologic findings and the elevation of blood prolactin level (measured in 3 patients) the term, “sparsely granulated prolactin producing pituitary adenoma”, appears to be the most appropriate one to designate these tumors.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Pituitary gland ; Choristoma ; Corticotroph ; Adrenocortical cell
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A pituitary tumour composed of well-differentiated corticotrophs and adrenocortical cells is reported. Sections of the tumour revealed a mixture of small round cells with amphophilic or basophilic periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive cytoplasm and large spherical and oval cells with abundant, granular, partly vacuolated PAS-negative cytoplasm. The small cells contained type 1 cytokeratin-positive microfilaments, numerous 250–500 nm endocrine-type secretory granules immunoreactive for adenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and β-lipotropin. The large cells possessed ample cytoplasm filled with abundant vesicular smooth endoplasmic reticulum, numerous mitochondria possessing tubulovesicular cristae and frequent dense bodies. They lacked the features of pituitary endocrine cells or folliculostellate cells and were found to contain a panel of steroidogenic dehydrogenases and hydroxylases. The tumour was classified as a choristoma, in which two distinct cells types, corticotrophs and adrenocortical cells, were mixed. We suggest that, under continued ACTH stimulation, uncommitted stem cells may differentiate into adrenocortical cells. Alternatively, the presence of adrenocortical cells may be the result of heterotopia.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Pituitary ; Human ; Somatotroph ; Thyrotroph hyperplasia ; Immunocytochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  In patients with protracted primary hypothyroidism, the pituitary is enlarged due to the lack of feedback inhibition by thyroid hormone. In the present work, adenohypophysial biopsies from three women with protracted primary hypothyroidism were investigated by routine histology, immunocytochemistry, double immunostaining, immunoelectron microscopy, and combined immunocytochemistry – in situ hybridization. These methods confirmed the presence of massive thyrotroph hyperplasia and the formation of ”thyroidectomy” or ”thyroid deficiency” cells. A number of thyroidectomy cells were found to be immunoreactive for growth hormone (GH). Double immunostaining and immunoelectron microscopy revealed the presence of bihormonal cells containing both GH and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Immunostaining combined with in situ hybridization revealed GH immunoreactive cells expressing TSH mRNA as well as TSH immunopositive cells expressing GH mRNA. Our findings provide conclusive evidence that somatotrophs may transform to thyrotrophs. Thus, in addition to multiplication of thyrotrophs, transdifferentiation of GH cells to thyrotrophs contributes to the increase of TSH-producing cells. The presence of such bihormonal cells best termed ”thyrosomatotrophs” supports the concept that adenohypophysial cells are not irreversibly committed to the production of one single hormone and that their phenotype can change in response to functional demand.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Bromocriptine ; Pituitary neoplasm ; Prolactin ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Conventional light microscopy, immunocyto-chemistry, electron microscopy and in situ hybridization were used to evaluate the effect of dopamine agonists (bromocriptine-LAR and bromocriptine) on the morphology of surgically removed prolactin (PRL)-producing pituitary adenomas. Dopamine agonist therapy resulted in decrease of serum PRL, clinical improvement and tumour shrinkage. Using light and electron microscopy cellular atrophy, interstitial and perivascular fibrosis were noted; in several tumours connective tissue accumulation was pronounced. The cellular response was not uniform. In some adenomas populations of large cells and small cells were distinguished. The large cells contained immunoreactive PRL and expressed the PRL gene indicating resistance to dopamine agonists. It appears that these cells retained the potential to secrete PRL and proliferate despite exposure to dopamine agonists. In the small cells, PRL immunoreactivity and PRL gene expression decreased providing evidence that both PRL release and synthesis were blocked. Small cells can persist in tumours after discontinuation of dopamine agonist medication suggesting these small cells are irreversibly suppressed and are not capable of regaining their endocrine function and proliferative capability. The formation of irreversibly suppressed PRL cells may explain why some PRL-producing adenomas do not recur after withdrawal of dopamine agonists.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Acromegaly ; Electron microscopy ; Growth hormone ; Pituitary adenoma
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Unusually large, oval and pleomorphic secretory granules were noted by electron microscopy in an acidophilic adenoma of the pituitary. The tumor, which was removed by surgery from a 42-year-old woman with elevated blood growth hormone levels and the clinical features of acromegaly, was found to contain growth hormone by the immunoperoxidase technique. This ultrastructural abnormality of secretory granules was not reported so far and was not seen among the 58 cases of growth hormone-producing adenomas investigated in our laboratory. The present case clearly shows that the cytogenesis and cellular composition of pituitary adenomas cannot be determined by solely examining the size and shape of secretory granules.
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