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  • 1
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  68. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Neurochirurgie (DGNC), 7. Joint Meeting mit der Society of British Neurological Surgeons (SBNS); 20170514-20170517; Magdeburg; DOCMi.13.04 /20170609/
    Publication Date: 2017-06-09
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
    Keywords: RISK ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; BRCA2 MUTATIONS ; SINGLE-NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; ALLELES ; LOCI ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; CONFER SUSCEPTIBILITY ; COMMON VARIANTS ; IDENTIFIES 2
    Abstract: Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Genome-wide association studies have identified FGFR2 as a breast cancer susceptibility gene. Common variation in other fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors might also modify risk. We tested this hypothesis by studying genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and imputed SNPs in FGFR1, FGFR3, FGFR4 and FGFRL1 in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Methods: Data were combined from 49 studies, including 53 835 cases and 50 156 controls, of which 89 050 (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) were of European ancestry, 12 893 (6269 cases and 6624 controls) of Asian and 2048 (1116 cases and 932 controls) of African ancestry. Associations with risk of breast cancer, overall and by disease sub-type, were assessed using unconditional logistic regression. Results: Little evidence of association with breast cancer risk was observed for SNPs in the FGF receptor genes. The strongest evidence in European women was for rs743682 in FGFR3; the estimated per-allele odds ratio was 1.05 (95% confidence interval 1.02-1.09, P=0.0020), which is substantially lower than that observed for SNPs in FGFR2. Conclusion: Our results suggest that common variants in the other FGF receptors are not associated with risk of breast cancer to the degree observed for FGFR2.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24548884
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  • 3
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; GENES ; TUMORS ; ACTIVATION ; PROMOTER ; SUBTYPES ; susceptibility loci ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; CYCLIN D1 EXPRESSION ; FUNCTIONAL VARIANTS
    Abstract: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed SNP rs889312 on 5q11.2 to be associated with breast cancer risk in women of European ancestry. In an attempt to identify the biologically relevant variants, we analyzed 909 genetic variants across 5q11.2 in 103,991 breast cancer individuals and control individuals from 52 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Multiple logistic regression analyses identified three independent risk signals: the strongest associations were with 15 correlated variants (iCHAV1), where the minor allele of the best candidate, rs62355902, associated with significantly increased risks of both estrogen-receptor-positive (ER-: odds ratio [OR] = 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21-1.27, p(trend) = 5.7 3 10(-44)) and estrogen-receptor-negative (ER-: OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.05-1.15, p(trend) = 3.0 x 10(-4)) tumors. After adjustment for rs62355902, we found evidence of association of a further 173 variants (iCHAV2) containing three subsets with a range of effects (the strongest was rs113317823 [p(cond) = 1.61 x 10(-5)]) and five variants composing iCHAV3 (lead rs11949391; ER-: OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.87-0.93, p(cond) = 1.4 x 10(-4)). Twenty-six percent of the prioritized candidate variants coincided with four putative regulatory elements that interact with the MAP3K1 promoter through chromatin looping and affect MAP3K1 promoter activity. Functional analysis indicated that the cancer risk alleles of four candidates (rs74345699 and rs62355900 [iCHAV1], rs16886397 [iCHAV2a], and rs17432750 [iCHAV3]) increased MAP3K1 transcriptional activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed diminished GATA3 binding to the minor (cancer-protective) allele of rs17432750, indicating a mechanism for its action. We propose that the cancer risk alleles act to increase MAP3K1 expression in vivo and might promote breast cancer cell survival.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25529635
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  • 4
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: In the Phase III LUX-Lung 3/6 (LL3/LL6) trials in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma patients, we evaluated feasibility of EGFR mutation detection using circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and prognostic and predictive utility of cfDNA positivity (cfDNA+). METHODS: Paired tumour and blood samples were prospectively collected from randomised patients. Mutations were detected using cfDNA from serum (LL3) or plasma (LL6) by a validated allele-specific quantitative real-time PCR kit. RESULTS: EGFR mutation detection rates in cfDNA were 28.6% (serum) and 60.5% (plasma). Mutation detection in blood was associated with advanced disease characteristics, including higher performance score, number of metastatic sites and bone/liver metastases, and poorer prognosis. In patients with common EGFR mutations, afatinib improved progression-free survival vs chemotherapy in cfDNA+ (LL3: HR, 0.35; P=0.0009; LL6: HR, 0.25; P〈0.0001) and cfDNA- (LL3: HR, 0.46; P〈0.0001; LL6: HR, 0.12; P〈0.0001) cohorts. A trend towards overall survival benefit with afatinib was observed in cfDNA+ patients. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma cfDNA is a promising alternative to biopsy for EGFR testing. Detectable mutation in blood was associated with more advanced disease and poorer prognosis. Afatinib improved outcomes in EGFR mutation-positive patients regardless of blood mutation status.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28006816
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  • 5
    Keywords: POLYMORPHISMS ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; risk factors ; SINGLE-NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; breast cancer susceptibility ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; REPAIR GENES ; CONFER SUSCEPTIBILITY ; COMMON VARIANTS ; TUMOR CHARACTERISTICS ; BRCA1 MUTATIONS ; 11Q13 ; FAMILY REGISTRY ; IDENTIFIES 5 ; hormone receptor status
    Abstract: A recent two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified five novel breast cancer susceptibility loci on chromosomes 9, 10, and 11. To provide more reliable estimates of the relative risk associated with these loci and investigate possible heterogeneity by subtype of breast cancer, we genotyped the variants rs2380205, rs1011970, rs704010, rs614367, and rs10995190 in 39 studies from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), involving 49,608 cases and 48,772 controls of predominantly European ancestry. Four of the variants showed clear evidence of association (P = 3 X 10-9) and weak evidence was observed for rs2380205 (P = 0.06). The strongest evidence was obtained for rs614367, located on 11q13 (per-allele odds ratio 1.21, P = 4 X 10-39). The association for rs614367 was specific to estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease and strongest for ER plus progesterone receptor (PR)-positive breast cancer, whereas the associations for the other three loci did not differ by tumor subtype.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22461340
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  • 6
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  69. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Neurochirurgie (DGNC), Joint Meeting mit der Mexikanischen und Kolumbianischen Gesellschaft für Neurochirurgie; 20180603-20180606; Münster; DOCV109 /20180618/
    Publication Date: 2018-06-19
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-08-10
    Description: Thrombopoietin (TPO), a hematopoietic growth factor produced predominantly by the liver, is essential for thrombopoiesis. Prevailing theory posits that circulating TPO levels are maintained through its clearance by platelets and megakaryocytes via surface c-Mpl receptor internalization. Interestingly, we found a two- to threefold decrease in circulating TPO in GPIbα –/– mice compared with wild-type (WT) controls, which was consistent in GPIbα-deficient human Bernard-Soulier syndrome (BSS) patients. We showed that lower TPO levels in GPIbα-deficient conditions were not due to increased TPO clearance by GPIbα –/– platelets but rather to decreased hepatic TPO mRNA transcription and production. We found that WT, but not GPIbα –/– , platelet transfusions rescued hepatic TPO mRNA and circulating TPO levels in GPIbα –/– mice. In vitro hepatocyte cocultures with platelets or GPIbα-coupled beads further confirm the disruption of platelet-mediated hepatic TPO generation in the absence of GPIbα. Treatment of GPIbα –/– platelets with neuraminidase caused significant desialylation; however, strikingly, desialylated GPIbα –/– platelets could not rescue impaired hepatic TPO production in vivo or in vitro, suggesting that GPIbα, independent of platelet desialylation, is a prerequisite for hepatic TPO generation. Additionally, impaired hepatic TPO production was recapitulated in interleukin-4/GPIbα–transgenic mice, as well as with antibodies targeting the extracellular portion of GPIbα, demonstrating that the N terminus of GPIbα is required for platelet-mediated hepatic TPO generation. These findings reveal a novel nonredundant regulatory role for platelets in hepatic TPO homeostasis, which improves our understanding of constitutive TPO regulation and has important implications in diseases related to GPIbα, such as BSS and auto- and alloimmune-mediated thrombocytopenias.
    Keywords: Platelets and Thrombopoiesis, Thrombosis and Hemostasis
    Print ISSN: 0006-4971
    Electronic ISSN: 1528-0020
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-09-05
    Description: The current tumor staging system is insufficient for predicting the outcomes for patients with colorectal cancer because of its phenotypic and genomic heterogeneity. Integrating gene expression signatures with clinicopathologic factors may yield a predictive accuracy exceeding that of the currently available system. Twenty-seven signatures that used gene expression data to predict colorectal cancer prognosis were identified and re-analyzed using bioinformatic methods. Next, clinically annotated colorectal cancer samples ( n = 1710) with the corresponding expression profiles, that predicted a patient's probability of cancer recurrence, were pooled to evaluate their prognostic values and establish a clinicopathologic–genomic nomogram. Only 2 of the 27 signatures evaluated showed a significant association with prognosis and provided a reasonable prediction accuracy in the pooled cohort (HR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.183–5.132, P 〈 0.001; AUC, 60.83; HR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.218–4.453, P 〈 0.001; AUC, 71.34). By integrating the above signatures with prognostic clinicopathologic features, a clinicopathologic–genomic nomogram was cautiously constructed. The nomogram successfully stratified colorectal cancer patients into three risk groups with remarkably different DFS rates and further stratified stage II and III patients into distinct risk subgroups. Importantly, among patients receiving chemotherapy, the nomogram determined that those in the intermediate- (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.255–0.679, P 〈 0.001) and high-risk (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.469–0.957, P = 0.028) groups had favorable responses. Implications: These findings offer evidence that genomic data provide independent and complementary prognostic information, and incorporation of this information refines the prognosis of colorectal cancer. Mol Cancer Res; 16(9); 1373–84. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1541-7786
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3125
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-10-09
    Description: Chronic hepatitis is the major cause of liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Several factors affect portal pressure, including liver fibrosis, splanchnic vasodilatation, and pathologic angiogenesis. Nucleos(t)ide analogs (NUCs), the oral antiviral agents, effectively attenuate chronic hepatitis B-related liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension via viral suppression and alleviation of hepatitis. On the other hand, NUCs affect tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- α , vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and nitric oxide, which participate in fibrogenesis, vasodilatation, and angiogenesis. However, whether NUCs independently influence liver fibrosis and portal hypertension beyond viral suppression is unknown. This study thus aimed to evaluate the influences of three frequently used NUCs in rats with nonviral cirrhosis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received common bile duct ligation (CBDL) to induce cholestatic cirrhosis and portal hypertension. The rats were randomly allocated into four groups, treated by mouth with lamivudine (30 mg/kg per day), entecavir (0.09 mg/kg per day), tenofovir (50 mg/kg per day), or distilled water (vehicle control) from the 15th day after CBDL. On the 29th day, liver cirrhosis- and portal hypertension-related parameters were evaluated. The results showed that chronic NUCs treatment did not affect hemodynamic parameters, plasma TNF- α concentration, and hepatic fibrogenesis protein expressions in rats with nonviral cirrhosis. Though the mesenteric VEGF receptor 2 phosphorylation was downregulated in NUCs-treated groups, the splanchnic angiogenesis was not influenced. In conclusion, lamivudine, entecavir, and tenofovir had no additional effects on liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension in rats with nonviral cirrhosis.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3565
    Electronic ISSN: 1521-0103
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-02-16
    Description: Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a prevalent autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibody-induced platelet clearance. Some ITP patients are refractory to standard immunosuppressive treatments such as intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). These patients often have autoantibodies that target the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα), a major subunit of the platelet mechanoreceptor complex GPIb-IX. However, the molecular mechanism of this Fc-independent platelet clearance is not clear. Here, we report that many anti-LBD monoclonal antibodies such as 6B4, but not AK2, activated GPIb-IX in a shear-dependent manner and induced IVIg-resistant platelet clearance in mice. Single-molecule optical tweezer measurements of antibodies pulling on full-length GPIb-IX demonstrated that the unbinding force needed to dissociate 6B4 from the LBD far exceeds the force required to unfold the juxtamembrane mechanosensory domain (MSD) in GPIbα, unlike the AK2-LBD unbinding force. Binding of 6B4, not AK2, induced shear-dependent unfolding of the MSD on the platelet, as evidenced by increased exposure of a linear sequence therein. Imaging flow cytometry and aggregometry measurements of platelets and LBD-coated platelet-mimetic beads revealed that 6B4 can sustain crosslinking of platelets under shear, whereas 6B4 Fab and AK2 cannot. These results suggest a novel mechanism by which anti-LBD antibodies can exert a pulling force on GPIb-IX via platelet crosslinking, activating GPIb-IX by unfolding its MSD and inducing Fc-independent platelet clearance.
    Keywords: Thrombocytopenia, Platelets and Thrombopoiesis
    Print ISSN: 0006-4971
    Electronic ISSN: 1528-0020
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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